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Les misérables is a movie starring Damien Bonnard, Alexis Manenti, and Djebril Zonga. A cop from the provinces moves to Paris to join the Anti-Crime Brigade of Montfermeil, discovering an underworld where the tensions between the
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Im not crying! You are. I will follow where they go. Synopsis One of the worlds most iconic and longest-running musicals, Les Misérables tells the story of Jean Valjean, a former convict who spends a lifetime seeking redemption. Set against the backdrop of 19th-century France and the aftermath of the French Revolution, this timeless story of intertwined destinies reveals the power of compassion and the quiet evil of indifference to human suffering. As Valjeans quest for a new life carries him into Paris and to the barricades of the Student Revolution, he is hunted by Inspector Javert and the ghosts of his past. Amidst a battle for the soul of Paris, he discovers the true meaning of love and salvation. Performed in over 40 countries and 22 languages, and with a lush, swelling score that features such famed songs as “I Dreamed a Dream, ” “On My Own, ” and “Bring Him Home, ” Les Mis brings Victor Hugos revolutionary novel blazingly to life.

Est ce que le film est que sur jeanvaljean ou sur tous les personnages. Les misérables. Les misérables medley - single lindsey stirling. Something went wrong, but dont fret — lets give it another shot. Les misérables tv. Les misérables song. De quoi attraper des névroses et des dépressions avec ça.

I had a dream my life would be. Les misérables (2012. Les misérables characters. Remembering Victor Hugo: 26/02/1802 - 22/05/1885. R.I.P. What a great movie! Salute from the UK 🇬🇧 And funny as well if you are from the ghetto and understand all the jokes.

Le flic black il a pas jouer dans les yamakasi ? Sa tête me dit quelque chose. Les misérables 85th academy awards performance. Home Huffington Post THE MUSICAL PHENOMENON. This is giving me such Yamakasi/B13/Intouchables vibes. I love this type of French movies. D'après la célèbre comédie musicale Euuh, juste avant, chers américains, c'étaient des romans. ça aurait été plutôt cool de faire une petite dédicace à quand même. Les Misérables Jean Valjean as Monsieur Madeleine. Illustration by Gustave Brion Author Victor Hugo Illustrator Emile Bayard Country Belgium Language French Genre Epic novel, historical fiction Publisher A. Lacroix, Verboeckhoven & Cie. Publication date 1862 Les Misérables. 1] French: le mizeʁabl(ə. is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century. In the English-speaking world, the novel is usually referred to by its original French title. However, several alternatives have been used, including The Miserables, The Wretched, The Miserable Ones, The Poor Ones, The Wretched Poor, The Victims and The Dispossessed. [2] Beginning in 1815 and culminating in the 1832 June Rebellion in Paris, the novel follows the lives and interactions of several characters, particularly the struggles of ex-convict Jean Valjean and his experience of redemption. [3] Examining the nature of law and grace, the novel elaborates upon the history of France, the architecture and urban design of Paris, politics, moral philosophy, antimonarchism, justice, religion, and the types and nature of romantic and familial love. Les Misérables has been popularized through numerous adaptations for film, television and the stage, including a musical. Novel form Upton Sinclair described the novel as "one of the half-dozen greatest novels of the world" and remarked that Hugo set forth the purpose of Les Misérables in the Preface: 4] So long as there shall exist, by reason of law and custom, a social condemnation, which, in the face of civilization, artificially creates hells on earth, and complicates a destiny that is divine with human fatality; so long as the three problems of the age—the degradation of man by poverty, the ruin of women by starvation, and the dwarfing of childhood by physical and spiritual night—are not solved; so long as, in certain regions, social asphyxia shall be possible; in other words, and from a yet more extended point of view, so long as ignorance and misery remain on earth, books like this cannot be useless. Towards the end of the novel, Hugo explains the work's overarching structure: 5] The book which the reader has before him at this moment is, from one end to the other, in its entirety and details. a progress from evil to good, from injustice to justice, from falsehood to truth, from night to day, from appetite to conscience, from corruption to life; from bestiality to duty, from hell to heaven, from nothingness to God. The starting point: matter, destination: the soul. The hydra at the beginning, the angel at the end. The novel contains various subplots, but the main thread is the story of ex-convict Jean Valjean, who becomes a force for good in the world but cannot escape his criminal past. The novel is divided into five volumes, each volume divided into several books, and subdivided into chapters, for a total of 48 books and 365 chapters. Each chapter is relatively short, commonly no longer than a few pages. The novel as a whole is one of the longest ever written, 6] with 655, 478 words in the original French. Hugo explained his ambitions for the novel to his Italian publisher: 7] I don't know whether it will be read by everyone, but it is meant for everyone. It addresses England as well as Spain, Italy as well as France, Germany as well as Ireland, the republics that harbour slaves as well as empires that have serfs. Social problems go beyond frontiers. Humankind's wounds, those huge sores that litter the world, do not stop at the blue and red lines drawn on maps. Wherever men go in ignorance or despair, wherever women sell themselves for bread, wherever children lack a book to learn from or a warm hearth, Les Misérables knocks at the door and says: open up, I am here for you. Digressions More than a quarter of the novel—by one count 955 of 2, 783 pages—is devoted to essays that argue a moral point or display Hugo's encyclopedic knowledge, but do not advance the plot, nor even a subplot, a method Hugo used in such other works as The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Toilers of the Sea. One biographer noted that "the digressions of genius are easily pardoned. 8] The topics Hugo addresses include cloistered religious orders, the construction of the Paris sewers, argot, and the street urchins of Paris. The one about convents he titles "Parenthesis" to alert the reader to its irrelevance to the story line. [9] Hugo devotes another 19 chapters (Volume II, Book I) to an account of—and a meditation on the place in history of—the Battle of Waterloo, the battlefield which Hugo visited in 1861 and where he finished writing the novel. It opens volume 2 with such a change of subject as to seem the beginning of an entirely different work. The fact that this 'digression' occupies such a large part of the text demands that it be read in the context of the 'overarching structure' discussed above. Hugo draws his own personal conclusions, taking Waterloo to be a pivot-point in history, but definitely not a victory for the forces of reaction. Waterloo, by cutting short the demolition of European thrones by the sword, had no other effect than to cause the revolutionary work to be continued in another direction. The slashers have finished; it was the turn of the thinkers. The century that Waterloo was intended to arrest has pursued its march. That sinister victory was vanquished by liberty. One critic has called this "the spiritual gateway" to the novel, as its chance encounter of Thénardier and Colonel Pontmercy foreshadows so many of the novel's encounters "blending chance and necessity" a "confrontation of heroism and villainy. 10] Even when not turning to other subjects outside his narrative, Hugo sometimes interrupts the straightforward recitation of events, his voice and control of the story line unconstrained by time and sequence. The novel opens with a statement about the bishop of Digne in 1815 and immediately shifts: Although these details in no way essentially concern that which we have to tell. Only after 14 chapters does Hugo pick up the opening thread again, In the early days of the month of October, 1815. to introduce Jean Valjean. [11] Hugo's sources Eugène Vidocq, whose career provided a model for the character of Jean Valjean An incident Hugo witnessed in 1829 involved three strangers and a police officer. One of the strangers was a man who had stolen a loaf of bread, similar to Jean Valjean. The officer was taking him to the coach. The thief also saw the mother and daughter playing with each other which would be an inspiration for Fantine and Cosette. Hugo imagined the life of the man in jail and the mother and daughter taken away from each other. [12] Valjean's character is loosely based on the life of the ex-convict Eugène François Vidocq. Vidocq became the head of an undercover police unit and later founded France's first private detective agency. He was also a businessman and was widely noted for his social engagement and philanthropy. Vidocq also inspired Hugo as he wrote Claude Gueux and Le Dernier jour d'un condamné ( The Last Day of a Condemned Man. 13] In 1828, Vidocq, already pardoned, saved one of the workers in his paper factory by lifting a heavy cart on his shoulders as Valjean does. [14] Hugo's description of Valjean rescuing a sailor on the Orion drew almost word for word on a Baron La Roncière's letter describing such an incident. [15] Hugo used Bienvenu de Miollis (1753–1843) the Bishop of Digne during the time in which Valjean encounters Myriel, as the model for Myriel. [16] 29 Hugo had used the departure of prisoners from the Bagne of Toulon in one of his early stories, Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamné. He went to Toulon to visit the Bagne in 1839 and took extensive notes, though he did not start writing the book until 1845. On one of the pages of his notes about the prison, he wrote in large block letters a possible name for his hero: JEAN TRÉJEAN. When the book was finally written, Tréjean became Valjean. [17] In 1841, Hugo saved a prostitute from arrest for assault. He used a short part of his dialogue with the police when recounting Valjean's rescue of Fantine in the novel. [18] On 22 February 1846, when he had begun work on the novel, Hugo witnessed the arrest of a bread thief while a duchess and her child watched the scene pitilessly from their coach. [19] 16] 29–30 He spent several vacations in Montreuil-sur-Mer. [16] 32 During the 1832 revolt, Hugo walked the streets of Paris, saw the barricades blocking his way at points, and had to take shelter from gunfire. [20] 173–174 He participated more directly in the 1848 Paris insurrection, helping to smash barricades and suppress both the popular revolt and its monarchist allies. [20] 273–276 Victor Hugo drew his inspiration from everything he heard and saw, writing it down in his diary. In December 1846, he witnessed an altercation between an old woman scavenging through rubbish and a street urchin who might have been Gavroche. [21] He also informed himself by personal inspection of the Paris Conciergerie in 1846 and Waterloo in 1861, by gathering information on some industries, and on working-class people's wages and living standards. He asked his mistresses, Léonie d'Aunet and Juliette Drouet, to tell him about life in convents. He also slipped personal anecdotes into the plot. For instance Marius and Cosettes wedding night (Part V, Book 6, Chapter 1) takes place on 16 February 1833, which is also the date when Hugo and his lifelong mistress Juliette Drouet made love for the first time. [22] Plot Volume I: Fantine The story begins in 1815 in Digne, as the peasant Jean Valjean, just released from 19 years' imprisonment in the Bagne of Toulon —five for stealing bread for his starving sister and her family and fourteen more for numerous escape attempts—is turned away by innkeepers because his yellow passport marks him as a former convict. He sleeps on the street, angry and bitter. Digne's benevolent Bishop Myriel gives him shelter. At night, Valjean runs off with Myriel's silverware. When the police capture Valjean, Myriel pretends that he has given the silverware to Valjean and presses him to take two silver candlesticks as well, as if he had forgotten to take them. The police accept his explanation and leave. Myriel tells Valjean that his life has been spared for God, and that he should use money from the silver candlesticks to make an honest man of himself. Valjean broods over Myriel's words. When opportunity presents itself, purely out of habit, he steals a 40- sous coin from 12-year-old Petit Gervais and chases the boy away. He quickly repents and searches the city in panic for Gervais. At the same time, his theft is reported to the authorities. Valjean hides as they search for him, because if apprehended he will be returned to the galleys for life as a repeat offender. Six years pass and Valjean, using the alias Monsieur Madeleine, has become a wealthy factory owner and is appointed mayor of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Walking down the street, he sees a man named Fauchelevent pinned under the wheels of a cart. When no one volunteers to lift the cart, even for pay, he decides to rescue Fauchelevent himself. He crawls underneath the cart, manages to lift it, and frees him. The town's police inspector, Inspector Javert, who was an adjutant guard at the Bagne of Toulon during Valjean's incarceration, becomes suspicious of the mayor after witnessing this remarkable feat of strength. He has known only one other man, a convict named Jean Valjean, who could accomplish it. Years earlier in Paris, a grisette named Fantine was very much in love with Félix Tholomyès. His friends, Listolier, Fameuil, and Blachevelle were also paired with Fantine's friends Dahlia, Zéphine, and Favourite. The men abandon the women, treating their relationships as youthful amusements. Fantine must draw on her own resources to care for her and Tholomyès' daughter, Cosette. When Fantine arrives at Montfermeil, she leaves Cosette in the care of the Thénardiers, a corrupt innkeeper and his selfish, cruel wife. Fantine is unaware that they are abusing her daughter and using her as forced labor for their inn, and continues to try to meet their growing, extortionate and fictitious demands. She is later fired from her job at Jean Valjean's factory, because of the discovery of her daughter, who was born out of wedlock. Meanwhile, the Thénardiers' monetary demands continue to grow. In desperation, Fantine sells her hair and two front teeth, and she resorts to prostitution to pay the Thénardiers. Fantine is slowly dying from an unspecified disease. A dandy named Bamatabois harasses Fantine in the street, and she reacts by striking him. Javert arrests Fantine. She begs to be released so that she can provide for her daughter, but Javert sentences her to six months in prison. Valjean (Mayor Madeleine) intervenes and orders Javert to release her. Javert resists but Valjean prevails. Valjean, feeling responsible because his factory turned her away, promises Fantine that he will bring Cosette to her. He takes her to a hospital. Javert comes to see Valjean again. Javert admits that after being forced to free Fantine, he reported him as Valjean to the French authorities. He tells Valjean he realizes he was wrong, because the authorities have identified someone else as the real Jean Valjean, have him in custody, and plan to try him the next day. Valjean is torn, but decides to reveal himself to save the innocent man, whose real name is Champmathieu. He travels to attend the trial and there reveals his true identity. Valjean returns to Montreuil to see Fantine, followed by Javert, who confronts him in her hospital room. After Javert grabs Valjean, Valjean asks for three days to bring Cosette to Fantine, but Javert refuses. Fantine discovers that Cosette is not at the hospital and fretfully asks where she is. Javert orders her to be quiet, and then reveals to her Valjean's real identity. Weakened by the severity of her illness, she falls back in shock and dies. Valjean goes to Fantine, speaks to her in an inaudible whisper, kisses her hand, and then leaves with Javert. Later, Fantine's body is unceremoniously thrown into a public grave. Volume II: Cosette Valjean escapes, is recaptured, and is sentenced to death. The king commutes his sentence to penal servitude for life. While imprisoned in the Bagne of Toulon, Valjean, at great personal risk, rescues a sailor caught in the ship's rigging. Spectators call for his release. Valjean fakes his own death by allowing himself to fall into the ocean. Authorities report him dead and his body lost. Valjean arrives at Montfermeil on Christmas Eve. He finds Cosette fetching water in the woods alone and walks with her to the inn. He orders a meal and observes how the Thénardiers abuse her, while pampering their own daughters Éponine and Azelma, who mistreat Cosette for playing with their doll. Valjean leaves and returns to make Cosette a present of an expensive new doll which, after some hesitation, she happily accepts. Éponine and Azelma are envious. Madame Thénardier is furious with Valjean, while her husband makes light of Valjean's behaviour, caring only that he pay for his food and lodging. The next morning, Valjean informs the Thénardiers that he wants to take Cosette with him. Madame Thénardier immediately accepts, while Thénardier pretends to love Cosette and be concerned for her welfare, reluctant to give her up. Valjean pays the Thénardiers 1, 500 francs, and he and Cosette leave the inn. Thénardier, hoping to swindle more out of Valjean, runs after them, holding the 1, 500 francs, and tells Valjean he wants Cosette back. He informs Valjean that he cannot release Cosette without a note from the child's mother. Valjean hands Thénardier Fantine's letter authorizing the bearer to take Cosette. Thénardier then demands that Valjean pay a thousand crowns, but Valjean and Cosette leave. Thénardier regrets that he did not bring his gun and turns back toward home. Valjean and Cosette flee to Paris. Valjean rents new lodgings at Gorbeau House, where he and Cosette live happily. However, Javert discovers Valjean's lodgings there a few months later. Valjean takes Cosette and they try to escape from Javert. They soon find shelter in the Petit-Picpus convent with the help of Fauchelevent, the man whom Valjean once rescued from being crushed under a cart and who has become the convent's gardener. Valjean also becomes a gardener and Cosette becomes a student at the convent school. Volume III: Marius Eight years later, the Friends of the ABC, led by Enjolras, are preparing an act of anti- Orléanist civil unrest (ie. the Paris uprising on 5–6 June 1832, following the death of General Lamarque, the only French leader who had sympathy towards the working class. Lamarque was a victim of a major cholera epidemic that had ravaged the city, particularly its poor neighborhoods, arousing suspicion that the government had been poisoning wells. The Friends of the ABC are joined by the poor of the Cour des miracles, including the Thénardiers' eldest son Gavroche, who is a street urchin. One of the students, Marius Pontmercy, has become alienated from his family (especially his royalist grandfather M. Gillenormand) because of his Bonapartism views. After the death of his father, Colonel Georges Pontmercy, Marius discovers a note from him instructing his son to provide help to a sergeant named Thénardier who saved his life at Waterloo — in reality Thénardier was looting corpses and only saved Pontmercy's life by accident; he had called himself a sergeant under Napoleon to avoid exposing himself as a robber. At the Luxembourg Garden, Marius falls in love with the now grown and beautiful Cosette. The Thénardiers have also moved to Paris and now live in poverty after losing their inn. They live under the surname "Jondrette" at Gorbeau House (coincidentally, the same building Valjean and Cosette briefly lived in after leaving the Thénardiers' inn. Marius lives there as well, next door to the Thénardiers. Éponine, now ragged and emaciated, visits Marius at his apartment to beg for money. To impress him, she tries to prove her literacy by reading aloud from a book and by writing "The Cops Are Here" on a sheet of paper. Marius pities her and gives her some money. After Éponine leaves, Marius observes the "Jondrettes" in their apartment through a crack in the wall. Éponine comes in and announces that a philanthropist and his daughter are arriving to visit them. In order to look poorer, Thénardier puts out the fire and breaks a chair. He also orders Azelma to punch out a window pane, which she does, resulting in cutting her hand (as Thénardier had hoped. The philanthropist and his daughter enter — actually Valjean and Cosette. Marius immediately recognizes Cosette. After seeing them, Valjean promises them he will return with rent money for them. After he and Cosette leave, Marius asks Éponine to retrieve her address for him. Éponine, who is in love with Marius herself, reluctantly agrees to do so. The Thénardiers have also recognized Valjean and Cosette, and vow their revenge. Thénardier enlists the aid of the Patron-Minette, a well-known and feared gang of murderers and robbers. Marius overhears Thénardier's plan and goes to Javert to report the crime. Javert gives Marius two pistols and instructs him to fire one into the air if things get dangerous. Marius returns home and waits for Javert and the police to arrive. Thénardier sends Éponine and Azelma outside to look out for the police. When Valjean returns with rent money, Thénardier, with Patron-Minette, ambushes him and he reveals his real identity to Valjean. Marius recognizes Thénardier as the man who saved his father's life at Waterloo and is caught in a dilemma. He tries to find a way to save Valjean while not betraying Thénardier. Valjean denies knowing Thénardier and tells him that they have never met. Valjean tries to escape through a window but is subdued and tied up. Thénardier orders Valjean to pay him 200, 000 francs. He also orders Valjean to write a letter to Cosette to return to the apartment, and they would keep her with them until he delivers the money. After Valjean writes the letter and informs Thénardier of his address, Thénardier sends out Mme. Thénardier to get Cosette. Mme. Thénardier comes back alone, and announces the address is a fake. It is during this time that Valjean manages to free himself. Thénardier decides to kill Valjean. While he and Patron-Minette are about to do so, Marius remembers the scrap of paper that Éponine wrote on earlier. He throws it into the Thénardiers' apartment through the wall crack. Thénardier reads it and thinks Éponine threw it inside. He, Mme. Thénardier and Patron-Minette try to escape, only to be stopped by Javert. He arrests all the Thénardiers and Patron-Minette (except Claquesous, who escapes during his transportation to prison, and Montparnasse, who stops to run off with Éponine instead of joining in on the robbery. Valjean manages to escape the scene before Javert sees him. Volume IV: The Idyll in the Rue Plumet and the Epic in the Rue St. Denis Éponine prevents the robbery at Valjean's house After Éponine's release from prison, she finds Marius at "The Field of the Lark" and sadly tells him that she found Cosette's address. She leads him to Valjean's and Cosette's house on Rue Plumet, and Marius watches the house for a few days. He and Cosette then finally meet and declare their love for one another. Thénardier, Patron-Minette and Brujon manage to escape from prison with the aid of Gavroche (a rare case of Gavroche helping his family in their criminal acitivities. One night, during one of Marius's visits with Cosette, the six men attempt to raid Valjean's and Cosette's house. However, Éponine, who has been sitting by the gates of the house, threatens to scream and awaken the whole neighbourhood if the thieves do not leave. Hearing this, they reluctantly retire. Meanwhile, Cosette informs Marius that she and Valjean will be leaving for England in a week's time, which greatly troubles the pair. The next day, Valjean is sitting in the Champ de Mars. He is feeling troubled about seeing Thénardier in the neighbourhood several times. Unexpectedly, a note lands in his lap, which says "Move Out. He sees a figure running away in the dim light. He goes back to his house, tells Cosette they will be staying at their other house on Rue de l'Homme Arme, and reconfirms to her that they will be moving to England. Marius tries to get permission from M. Gillenormand to marry Cosette. His grandfather seems stern and angry, but has been longing for Marius's return. When tempers flare, he refuses his assent to the marriage, telling Marius to make Cosette his mistress instead. Insulted, Marius leaves. The following day, the students revolt and erect barricades in the narrow streets of Paris. Gavroche spots Javert and informs Enjolras that Javert is a spy. When Enjolras confronts him about this, he admits his identity and his orders to spy on the students. Enjolras and the other students tie him up to a pole in the Corinth restaurant. Later that evening, Marius goes back to Valjean's and Cosette's house on Rue Plumet, but finds the house no longer occupied. He then hears a voice telling him that his friends are waiting for him at the barricade. Distraught to find Cosette gone, he heeds the voice and goes. When Marius arrives at the barricade, the revolution has already started. When he stoops down to pick up a powder keg, a soldier comes up to shoot Marius. However, a man covers the muzzle of the soldier's gun with his hand. The soldier fires, fatally wounding the man, while missing Marius. Meanwhile, the soldiers are closing in. Marius climbs to the top of the barricade, holding a torch in one hand, a powder keg in the other, and threatens to the soldiers that he will blow up the barricade. After confirming this, the soldiers retreat from the barricade. Marius decides to go to the smaller barricade, which he finds empty. As he turns back, the man who took the fatal shot for Marius earlier calls Marius by his name. Marius discovers this man is Éponine, dressed in men's clothes. As she lies dying on his knees, she confesses that she was the one who told him to go to the barricade, hoping they would die together. She also confesses to saving his life because she wanted to die before he did. The author also states to the reader that Éponine anonymously threw the note to Valjean. Éponine then tells Marius that she has a letter for him. She also confesses to have obtained the letter the day before, originally not planning to give it to him, but decides to do so in fear he would be angry at her about it in the afterlife. After Marius takes the letter, Éponine then asks him to kiss her on the forehead when she is dead, which he promises to do. With her last breath, she confesses that she was "a little bit in love" with him, and dies. Marius fulfills her request and goes into a tavern to read the letter. It is written by Cosette. He learns Cosette's whereabouts and he writes a farewell letter to her. He sends Gavroche to deliver it to her, but Gavroche leaves it with Valjean. Valjean, learning that Cosette's lover is fighting, is at first relieved, but an hour later, he puts on a National Guard uniform, arms himself with a gun and ammunition, and leaves his home. Volume V: Jean Valjean Valjean in the sewers with the wounded Marius (US edition, 1900) Valjean arrives at the barricade and immediately saves a man's life. He is still not certain if he wants to protect Marius or kill him. Marius recognizes Valjean at first sight. Enjolras announces that they are almost out of cartridges. When Gavroche goes outside the barricade to collect more ammunition from the dead National Guardsmen, he is shot dead. Valjean volunteers to execute Javert himself, and Enjolras grants permission. Valjean takes Javert out of sight, and then shoots into the air while letting him go. Marius mistakenly believes that Valjean has killed Javert. As the barricade falls, Valjean carries off the injured and unconscious Marius. All the other students are killed. Valjean escapes through the sewers, carrying Marius's body. He evades a police patrol, and reaches an exit gate but finds it locked. Thénardier emerges from the darkness. Thénardier recognizes Valjean, but not Marius. Thinking Valjean a murderer lugging his victim's corpse, Thénardier offers to open the gate for money. As he searches Valjean and Marius's pockets, he surreptitiously tears off a piece of Marius's coat so he can later find out his identity. Thénardier takes the thirty francs he finds, opens the gate, and allows Valjean to leave, expecting Valjean's emergence from the sewer will distract the police who have been pursuing him. Upon exiting, Valjean encounters Javert and requests time to return Marius to his family before surrendering to him. Surprisingly Javert agrees, assuming that Marius will be dead within minutes. After leaving Marius at his grandfather's house, Valjean asks to be allowed a brief visit to his own home, and Javert agrees. There, Javert tells Valjean he will wait for him in the street, but when Valjean scans the street from the landing window he finds Javert has gone. Javert walks down the street, realizing that he is caught between his strict belief in the law and the mercy Valjean has shown him. He feels he can no longer give Valjean up to the authorities but also cannot ignore his duty to the law. Unable to cope with this dilemma, Javert commits suicide by throwing himself into the Seine. Marius slowly recovers from his injuries. As he and Cosette make wedding preparations, Valjean endows them with a fortune of nearly 600, 000 francs. As their wedding party winds through Paris during Mardi Gras festivities, Valjean is spotted by Thénardier, who then orders Azelma to follow him. After the wedding, Valjean confesses to Marius that he is an ex-convict. Marius is horrified, assumes the worst about Valjean's moral character, and contrives to limit Valjean's time with Cosette. Valjean accedes to Marius' judgment and his separation from Cosette. Valjean loses the will to live and retires to his bed. Thénardier approaches Marius in disguise, but Marius recognizes him. Thénardier attempts to blackmail Marius with what he knows of Valjean, but in doing so, he inadvertently corrects Marius's misconceptions about Valjean and reveals all of the good he has done. He tries to convince Marius that Valjean is actually a murderer, and presents the piece of coat he tore off as evidence. Stunned, Marius recognizes the fabric as part of his own coat and realizes that it was Valjean who rescued him from the barricade. Marius pulls out a fistful of notes and flings it at Thénardier's face. He then confronts Thénardier with his crimes and offers him an immense sum to depart and never return. Thénardier accepts the offer, and he and Azelma travel to America where he becomes a slave trader. As they rush to Valjean's house, Marius tells Cosette that Valjean saved his life at the barricade. They arrive to find Valjean near death and reconcile with him. Valjean tells Cosette her mother's story and name. He dies content and is buried beneath a blank slab in Père Lachaise Cemetery. Characters Major Jean Valjean (also known as Monsieur Madeleine, Ultime Fauchelevent, Monsieur Leblanc, and Urbain Fabre) – The protagonist of the novel. Convicted for stealing a loaf of bread to feed his sister's seven starving children and sent to prison for five years, he is paroled from prison nineteen years later (after four unsuccessful escape attempts added twelve years and fighting back during the second escape attempt added two extra years. Rejected by society for being a former convict, he encounters Bishop Myriel, who turns his life around by showing him mercy and encouraging him to become a new man. While sitting and pondering what Bishop Myriel had said, he puts his shoe on a forty-sou piece dropped by a young wanderer. Valjean threatens the boy with his stick when the boy attempts to rouse Valjean from his reverie and recover his money. He tells a passing priest his name, and the name of the boy, and this allows the police to charge him with armed robbery – a sentence that, if he were caught again, would return him to prison for life. He assumes a new identity (Monsieur Madeleine) in order to pursue an honest life. He introduces new manufacturing techniques and eventually builds two factories and becomes one of the richest men in the area. By popular acclaim, he is made mayor. He confronts Javert over Fantine's punishment, turns himself in to the police to save another man from prison for life, and rescues Cosette from the Thénardiers. Discovered by Javert in Paris because of his generosity to the poor, he evades capture for the next several years in a convent. He saves Marius from imprisonment and probable death at the barricade, reveals his true identity to Marius and Cosette after their wedding, and is reunited with them just before his death, having kept his promise to the bishop and to Fantine, the image of whom is the last thing he sees before dying. Javert – A fanatic police inspector in pursuit to recapture Valjean. Born in the prisons to a convict father and a fortune teller mother, he renounces both of them and starts working as a guard in the prison, including one stint as the overseer for the chain gang of which Valjean is part (and here witnesses firsthand Valjean's enormous strength and just what he looks like. Eventually he joins the police force in Montreuil-sur-Mer. He arrests Fantine and comes into conflict with Valjean/Madeleine, who orders him to release Fantine. Valjean dismisses Javert in front of his squad and Javert, seeking revenge, reports to the Police Inspector that he has discovered Jean Valjean. He is told that he must be incorrect, as a man mistakenly believed to be Jean Valjean was just arrested. He requests of M. Madeline that he be dismissed in disgrace, for he cannot be less harsh on himself than on others. When the real Jean Valjean turns himself in, Javert is promoted to the Paris police force where he arrests Valjean and sends him back to prison. After Valjean escapes again, Javert attempts one more arrest in vain. He then almost recaptures Valjean at Gorbeau house when he arrests the Thénardiers and Patron-Minette. Later, while working undercover behind the barricade, his identity is discovered. Valjean pretends to execute Javert, but releases him. When Javert next encounters Valjean emerging from the sewers, he allows him to make a brief visit home and then walks off instead of arresting him. Javert cannot reconcile his devotion to the law with his recognition that the lawful course is immoral. After composing a letter to the prefect of police outlining the squalid conditions that occur in prisons and the abuses that prisoners are subjected to, he takes his own life by jumping into the Seine. Fantine – A beautiful Parisian grisette abandoned with a small child by her lover Félix Tholomyès. Fantine leaves her daughter Cosette in the care of the Thénardiers, innkeepers in the village of Montfermeil. Thénardier spoils her own daughters and abuses Cosette. Fantine finds work at Monsieur Madeleine's factory. Illiterate, she has others write letters to the Thénardiers on her behalf. A female supervisor discovers that she is an unwed mother and dismisses her. To meet the Thénardiers' repeated demands for money, she sells her hair and two front teeth, and turns to prostitution. She becomes ill. Valjean learns of her plight when Javert arrests her for attacking a man who called her insulting names and threw snow down her back, and sends her to a hospital. As Javert confronts Valjean in her hospital room, because her illness has made her so weak, she dies of shock after Javert reveals that Valjean is a convict and hasn't brought her daughter Cosette to her (after the doctor encouraged that incorrect belief that Jean Valjean's recent absence was because he was bringing her daughter to her. Cosette (formally Euphrasie, also known as "the Lark" Mademoiselle Lanoire, Ursula) – The illegitimate daughter of Fantine and Tholomyès. From approximately the age of three to the age of eight, she is beaten and forced to work as a drudge for the Thénardiers. After her mother Fantine dies, Valjean ransoms Cosette from the Thénardiers and cares for her as if she were his daughter. Nuns in a Paris convent educate her. She grows up to become very beautiful. She falls in love with Marius Pontmercy and marries him near the novel's conclusion. Marius Pontmercy – A young law student loosely associated with the Friends of the ABC. He shares the political principles of his father and has a tempestuous relationship with his royalist grandfather, Monsieur Gillenormand. He falls in love with Cosette and fights on the barricades when he believes Valjean has taken her to London. After he and Cosette marry, he recognizes Thénardier as a swindler and pays him to leave France. Éponine (the Jondrette girl) – The Thénardiers' elder daughter. As a child, she is pampered and spoiled by her parents, but ends up a street urchin when she reaches adolescence. She participates in her father's crimes and begging schemes to obtain money. She is blindly in love with Marius. At Marius' request, she finds Valjean and Cosette's house for him and sadly leads him there. She also prevents her father, Patron-Minette, and Brujon from robbing the house during one of Marius' visits there to see Cosette. After disguising herself as a boy, she manipulates Marius into going to the barricades, hoping that she and Marius will die there together. Wanting to die before Marius, she reaches out her hand to stop a soldier from shooting at him; she is mortally wounded as the bullet goes through her hand and her back. As she is dying, she confesses all this to Marius, and gives him a letter from Cosette. Her final request to Marius is that once she has passed, he will kiss her on the forehead. He fulfills her request not because of romantic feelings on his part, but out of pity for her hard life. Monsieur Thénardier and Madame Thénardier (also known as the Jondrettes, M. Fabantou, M. Thénard. Some translations identify her as the Thenardiess) – Husband and wife, parents of five children: two daughters, Éponine and Azelma, and three sons, Gavroche and two unnamed younger sons. As innkeepers, they abuse Cosette as a child and extort payment from Fantine for her support, until Valjean takes Cosette away. They become bankrupt and relocate under the name Jondrette to a house in Paris called the Gorbeau house, living in the room next to Marius. The husband associates with a criminal group called "the Patron-Minette. and conspires to rob Valjean until he is thwarted by Marius. Javert arrests the couple. The wife dies in prison. Her husband attempts to blackmail Marius with his knowledge of Valjean's past, but Marius pays him to leave the country and he becomes a slave trader in the United States. Enjolras – The leader of Les Amis de l'ABC (Friends of the ABC) in the Paris uprising. He is passionately committed to republican principles and the idea of progress. He and Grantaire are executed by the National Guards after the barricade falls. Gavroche – The unloved middle child and eldest son of the Thénardiers. He lives on his own as a street urchin and sleeps inside an elephant statue outside the Bastille. He briefly takes care of his two younger brothers, unaware they are related to him. He takes part in the barricades and is killed while collecting bullets from dead National Guardsmen. Bishop Myriel – The Bishop of Digne (full name Charles-François-Bienvenu Myriel, also called Monseigneur Bienvenu) – A kindly old priest promoted to bishop after a chance encounter with Napoleon. After Valjean steals some silver from him, he saves Valjean from being arrested and inspires Valjean to change his ways. Grantaire – Grantaire (Also known as "R" was a student revolutionary with little interest in the cause. He reveres Enjolras, and his admiration is the main reason that Grantaire spends time with Les Amis de l'ABC (Friends of the ABC) despite Enjolras's occasional scorn for him. Grantaire is often drunk and is unconscious for the majority of the June Rebellion. He and Enjolras are executed by the National Guards after the barricade falls. Friends of the ABC A revolutionary student club. In French, the letters "ABC" are pronounced identically to the French word abaissés, the abased. Bahorel – A dandy and an idler from a peasant background, who is known well around the student cafés of Paris. Combeferre – A medical student who is described as representing the philosophy of the revolution. Courfeyrac – A law student who is described as the centre of the group of Friends. He is honorable and warm and is Marius' closest companion. Enjolras – The leader of the Friends. A resolute and charismatic youth, devoted to progress. Feuilly – An orphaned fan maker who taught himself to read and write. He is the only member of the Friends who is not a student. Grantaire – A drunk with little interest in revolution. Despite his pessimism, he eventually declares himself a believer in the Republic, and dies alongside Enjolras. Jean Prouvaire (also Jehan) – A Romantic with knowledge of Italian, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and an interest in the Middle Ages. Joly – A medical student who has unusual theories about health. He is a hypochondriac and is described as the happiest of the Friends. Lesgle (also Lègle, Laigle, L'Aigle [ The Eagle] or Bossuet) – The oldest member of the group. Considered notoriously unlucky, Lesgle begins balding at the age of twenty-five. It is Lesgle who introduces Marius to the Friends. Minor Azelma – The younger daughter of the Thénardiers. Like her sister Éponine, she is spoiled as a child, impoverished when older. She abets her father's failed robbery of Valjean. On Marius and Cosette's wedding day, she tails Valjean on her father's orders. She travels to America with her father at the end of the novel. Bamatabois – An idler who harasses Fantine. Later a juror at Champmathieu's trial. (Mlle) Baptistine Myriel – Bishop Myriel's sister. She loves and venerates her brother. Blachevelle – A wealthy student in Paris originally from Montauban. He is a friend of Félix Tholomyès and becomes romantically involved with Fantine's friend Favourite. Bougon, Madame (called Ma'am Burgon) – Housekeeper of Gorbeau House. Brevet – An ex-convict from Toulon who knew Valjean there; released one year after Valjean. In 1823, he is serving time in the prison in Arras for an unknown crime. He is the first to claim that Champmathieu is really Valjean. He used to wear knitted, checkered suspenders. Brujon – A robber and criminal. He participates in crimes with M. Thénardier and the Patron-Minette gang (such as the Gorbeau Robbery and the attempted robbery at the Rue Plumet. The author describes Brujon as being "a sprightly young fellow, very cunning and very adroit, with a flurried and plaintive appearance. " Champmathieu – A vagabond who is misidentified as Valjean after being caught stealing apples. Chenildieu – A lifer from Toulon. He and Valjean were chain mates for five years. He once tried to unsuccessfully remove his lifer's brand TFP ( travaux forcés à perpetuité. forced labour for life" by putting his shoulder on a chafing dish full of embers. He is described as a small, wiry but energetic man. Cochepaille – Another lifer from Toulon. He used to be a shepherd from the Pyrenees who became a smuggler. He is described as stupid and has a tattoo on his arm, 1 Mars 1815. Colonel Georges Pontmercy – Marius's father and an officer in Napoleon's army. Wounded at Waterloo, Pontmercy erroneously believes M. Thénardier saved his life. He tells Marius of this great debt. He loves Marius and although M. Gillenormand does not allow him to visit, he continually hid behind a pillar in the church on Sunday so that he could at least look at Marius from a distance. Napoleon made him a baron, but the next regime refused to recognize his barony or his status as a colonel, instead referring to him only as a commandant. The book usually calls him "The colonel. Dahlia – A young grisette in Paris and member of Fantine's group of seamstress friends along with Favourite and Zéphine. She becomes romantically involved with Félix Tholomyès' friend Listolier. Fameuil – A wealthy student in Paris originally from Limoges. He is a friend of Félix Tholomyès and becomes romantically involved with Fantine's friend Zéphine. Fauchelevent – A failed businessman whom Valjean (as M. Madeleine) saves from being crushed under a carriage. Valjean gets him a position as gardener at a Paris convent, where Fauchelevent later provides sanctuary for Valjean and Cosette and allows Valjean to pose as his brother. Favourite – A young grisette in Paris and leader of Fantine's group of seamstress friends (including Zéphine and Dahlia. She is independent and well versed in the ways of the world and had previously been in England. Although she cannot stand Félix Tholomyès' friend Blachevelle and is in love with someone else, she endures a relationship with him so she can enjoy the perks of courting a wealthy man. Listolier – A wealthy student in Paris originally from Cahors. He is a friend of Félix Tholomyès and becomes romantically involved with Fantine's friend Dahlia. Mabeuf – An elderly churchwarden, friend of Colonel Pontmercy, who after the Colonel's death befriends his son Marius and helps Marius realize his father loved him. Mabeuf loves plants and books, but sells his books and prints in order to pay for a friend's medical care. When Mabeuf finds a purse in his yard, he takes it to the police. After selling his last book, he joins the students in the insurrection. He is shot dead raising the flag atop the barricade. Mademoiselle Gillenormand – Daughter of M. Gillenormand, with whom she lives. Her late half-sister (M. Gillenormand's daughter from another marriage) was Marius' mother. Madame Magloire – Domestic servant to Bishop Myriel and his sister. Magnon – Former servant of M. Gillenormand and friend of the Thénardiers. She had been receiving child support payments from M. Gillenormand for her two illegitimate sons, who she claimed were fathered by him. When her sons died in an epidemic, she had them replaced with the Thénardiers' two youngest sons so that she could protect her income. The Thénardiers get a portion of the payments. She is incorrectly arrested for involvement in the Gorbeau robbery. Monsieur Gillenormand – Marius' grandfather. A monarchist, he disagrees sharply with Marius on political issues, and they have several arguments. He attempts to keep Marius from being influenced by his father, Colonel Georges Pontmercy. While in perpetual conflict over ideas, he holds his grandson in affection. Mother Innocente (a. k. a. Marguerite de Blemeur) – The prioress of the Petit-Picpus convent. Patron-Minette – A quartet of bandits who assist in the Thénardiers' ambush of Valjean at Gorbeau House and the attempted robbery at the Rue Plumet. The gang consists of Montparnasse, Claquesous, Babet, and Gueulemer. Claquesous, who escaped from the carriage transporting him to prison after the Gorbeau Robbery, joins the revolution under the guise of "Le Cabuc" and is executed by Enjolras for firing on civilians. Petit Gervais – A travelling Savoyard boy who drops a coin. Valjean, still a man of criminal mind, places his foot on the coin and refuses to return it. Sister Simplice – A famously truthful nun who cares for Fantine on her sickbed and lies to Javert to protect Valjean. Félix Tholomyès – Fantine's lover and Cosette's biological father. A wealthy, self-centered student in Paris originally from Toulouse, he eventually abandons Fantine when their daughter is two years old. Toussaint – Valjean and Cosette's servant in Paris. She has a slight stutter. Two little boys – The two unnamed youngest sons of the Thénardiers, whom they send to Magnon to replace her two dead sons. Living on the streets, they encounter Gavroche, who is unaware they are his siblings but treats them like they are his brothers. After Gavroche's death, they retrieve bread tossed by a bourgeois man to geese in a fountain at the Luxembourg Garden. Zéphine – A young grisette in Paris and member of Fantine's group of seamstress friends along with Favourite and Dahlia. She becomes romantically involved with Félix Tholomyès' friend Fameuil. The narrator Hugo does not give the narrator a name and allows the reader to identify the narrator with the novel's author. The narrator occasionally injects himself into the narrative or reports facts outside the time of the narrative to emphasize that he is recounting historical events, not entirely fiction. He introduces his recounting of Waterloo with several paragraphs describing the narrator's recent approach to the battlefield: Last year (1861) on a beautiful May morning, a traveller, the person who is telling this story, was coming from Nivelles. 23] The narrator describes how " a]n observer, a dreamer, the author of this book" during the 1832 street fighting was caught in crossfire: All that he had to protect him from the bullets was the swell of the two half columns which separate the shops; he remained in this delicate situation for nearly half an hour. At one point he apologizes for intruding—"The author of this book, who regrets the necessity of mentioning himself"—to ask the reader's understanding when he describes "the Paris of his youth. as though it still existed. This introduces a meditation on memories of past places that his contemporary readers would recognize as a self-portrait written from exile: you have left a part of your heart, of your blood, of your soul, in those pavements. He describes another occasion when a bullet shot "pierced a brass shaving-dish suspended. over a hairdresser's shop. This pierced shaving-dish was still to be seen in 1848, in the Rue du Contrat-Social, at the corner of the pillars of the market. As evidence of police double agents at the barricades, he writes: The author of this book had in his hands, in 1848, the special report on this subject made to the Prefect of Police in 1832. " Contemporary reception The appearance of the novel was a highly anticipated event as Victor Hugo was considered one of France's foremost poets in the middle of the nineteenth century. The New York Times announced its forthcoming publication as early as April 1860. [24] Hugo forbade his publishers from summarizing his story and refused to authorize the publication of excerpts in advance of publication. He instructed them to build on his earlier success and suggested this approach: What Victor H. did for the Gothic world in Notre-Dame of Paris [ The Hunchback of Notre Dame] he accomplishes for the modern world in Les Miserables. 25] A massive advertising campaign [26] preceded the release of the first two volumes of Les Misérables in Brussels on 30 or 31 March and in Paris on 3 April 1862. [27] The remaining volumes appeared on 15 May 1862. Critical reactions were wide-ranging and often negative. Some critics found the subject matter immoral, others complained of its excessive sentimentality, and others were disquieted by its apparent sympathy with the revolutionaries. L. Gauthier wrote in Le Monde of 17 August 1862: One cannot read without an unconquerable disgust all the details Monsieur Hugo gives regarding the successful planning of riots. 28] The Goncourt brothers judged the novel artificial and disappointing. [29] Flaubert found "neither truth nor greatness" in it. He complained that the characters were crude stereotypes who all "speak very well – but all in the same way. He deemed it an "infantile" effort and brought an end to Hugo's career like "the fall of a god. 30] In a newspaper review, Charles Baudelaire praised Hugo's success in focusing public attention on social problems, though he believed that such propaganda was the opposite of art. In private he castigated it as "repulsive and inept. immonde et inepte. 31] The Catholic Church placed it on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. [32] The work was a commercial success and has been a popular book ever since it was published. [33] 34] Translated the same year it appeared into several foreign languages, including Italian, Greek, and Portuguese, it proved popular not only in France, but across Europe and abroad. English translations Charles E. Wilbour. New York: Carleton Publishing Company, June 1862. The first English translation. The first volume was available for purchase in New York beginning 7 June 1862. [35] Also New York and London: George Routledge and Sons, 1879. Lascelles Wraxall. London: Hurst and Blackett, October 1862. The first British translation. [35] Translator identified as "A. F. Richmond, Virginia, 1863. Published by West and Johnston publishers. The Editor's Preface announces its intention of correcting errors in Wilbour's translation. It said that some passages "exclusively intended for the French readers of the book" were being omitted, as well as " a] few scattered sentences reflecting on slavery" because "the absence of a few antislavery paragraphs will hardly be complained of by Southern readers. Because of paper shortages in wartime, the passages omitted became longer with each successive volume. [35] Isabel Florence Hapgood. Published 1887, this translation is available at Project Gutenberg. [36] Norman Denny. Folio Press, 1976. A modern British translation later re-published in paperback by Penguin Books, ISBN   0-14-044430-0. The translator explains in an introduction that he has placed two of the novel's longer digressive passages into appendices and made some minor abridgements in the text. Lee Fahnestock and Norman McAfee. Signet Classics. 3 March 1987. An unabridged edition based on the Wilbour translation with its language modernized. Paperback ISBN   0-451-52526-4 Julie Rose. 2007. Vintage Classics, 3 July 2008. A new translation of the full work, with a detailed biographical sketch of Victor Hugo's life, a chronology, and notes. ISBN   978-0-09-951113-7 Christine Donougher. Penguin Classics, 7 November 2013. ISBN   978-0141393599 Adaptations Since its original publication, Les Misérables has been the subject of a large number of adaptations in numerous types of media, such as books, films, musicals, plays and games. Notable examples of these adaptations include: The 1935 film directed by Richard Boleslawski, starring Fredric March and Charles Laughton. The film was nominated for Best Picture, Best Film Editing, Best Assistant Director at 8th Academy Awards. The 1937 radio adaptation by Orson Welles. [37] The 1952 film adaptation directed by Lewis Milestone, starring Michael Rennie and Robert Newton. The 1958 film adaptation directed by Jean-Paul Le Chanois, with an international cast starring Jean Gabin, Bernard Blier, and Bourvil. [38] Called "the most memorable film version" it was filmed in East Germany and was overtly political. [39] The 1978 television film adaptation, starring Richard Jordan and Anthony Perkins. The 1980 musical, by Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schönberg. [40] The 1982 film adaptation, directed by Robert Hossein, starring Lino Ventura and Michel Bouquet. The 1995 film, by Claude Lelouch, starring Jean-Paul Belmondo [41] The 1998 film, starring Liam Neeson and Geoffrey Rush. [42] The 2000 TV miniseries, starring Gérard Depardieu and John Malkovich. [43] The 2007 TV anime adaptation, by Studio Nippon Animation. The 2012 film of the musical, starring Hugh Jackman, Russell Crowe, Anne Hathaway and Amanda Seyfried. [44] The film received eight Academy Award nominations including Best Picture, Best Actor for Jackman, and won three, for Best Sound Mixing, Best Makeup and Hairstyling, and Best Supporting Actress for Hathaway. A 2013 Japanese manga adaptation by Takahiro Arai, to be published in Shogakukan 's Monthly Shonen Sunday magazine from September 2013. [45] A 2018 TV miniseries by Andrew Davies, starring Dominic West, David Oyelowo and Lily Collins. [46] Sequels Laura Kalpakian 's Cosette: The Sequel to Les Misérables was published in 1995. It continues the story of Cosette and Marius, but is more a sequel to the musical than to the original novel. In 2001, two French novels by François Cérésa that continue Hugo's story appeared: Cosette ou le temps des illusions and Marius ou le fugitif. The former has been published in an English translation. Javert appears as a hero who survived his suicide attempt and becomes religious; Thénardier returns from America; Marius is unjustly imprisoned. [47] The works were the subject of an unsuccessful lawsuit brought by Hugo's great-great-grandson. [48] 49] See also Fex urbis lex orbis Jean Val Jean, abridged version in English (1935) References ^ Les Misérables. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman. Retrieved 16 August 2019. ^ Novelist Susanne Alleyn has argued that "the phrase “les misérables”, which has a whole range of subtly shaded meanings in French, is much better translated into English as “the dispossessed” or even as “the outsiders” — which can describe every major character in the novel in one way or another — than simply as “the miserable ones” / “the wretched ones. ” No, Its Not Actually the French Revolution: Les Misérables and History. ^ BBC News – Bon anniversaire! 25 facts about Les Mis. BBC Online. 1 October 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010. ^ Sinclair, Upton (1915. The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest. Charles Rivers Editors. ISBN   978-1-247-96345-7. ^ Alexander Welsh, Opening and Closing Les Misérables. in Harold Bloom, ed., Victor Hugo: Modern Critical Views (NY: Chelsea House, 1988) 155; Vol. 5, Book 1, Chapter 20 ^ Read the Ten Longest Novels Ever Written. Retrieved 31 December 2012. ^ Behr, Complete Book, 39–42 ^ A. Davidson, Victor Hugo: His Life And Work (J. B. Lippincott, 1929) Kindle Location 4026, 4189 ^ Victor Brombert. Les Misérables: Salvation from Below" in Harold Bloom, ed., Modern Critical Views: Victor Hugo (Chelsea House, 1988) 195 ^ Brombert, Salvation from Below. 195–97 ^ Alexander Welsh, Opening and Closing Les Misérables. in Harold Bloom, ed., Modern Critical Views: Victor Hugo (Chelsea House, 1988) 151–52 ^ Day, Anonymous (15 August 2014. About the Novel" PDF. The Official Les Miserables Website Times. ^ Guyon, Loïc Pierre (2002. Un aventurier picaresque au XIXe siècle: Eugène-François Vidocq. In Glaser, Albert; Kleine-Roßbach, Sabine (eds. Abenteurer als Helden der Literatur (in French. Springer. doi: 10. 1007/978-3-476-02877-8. ISBN   978-3-476-02877-8. ^ Morton, James (2004. The First Detective: The Life and Revolutionary Times of Vidocq, Criminal, Spy and Private Eye. New York: Overlook Press. ^ Hugo, Victor, Les Misérables (Preface by A. Rosa) Laffont, 1985, ISBN   2-221-04689-7, p. IV. ^ a b c Edward Behr, The Complete Book of Les Misérables (Arcade, 1993) Le Bagne de Toulon (1748–1873) Académie du Var, Autres Temps Editions (2010) ISBN   978-2-84521-394-4 ^ Victor Hugo, Things Seen, vol. 1 (Glasgow and New York: George Routledge and Sons, 1887) 49–52. The chapter is title "1841. Origin of Fantine. Behr quotes this passage at length in Behr, Complete Book, 32–36. ^ Victor Hugo, Choses vues: nouvelle série (Paris: Calman Lévy, 1900) 129–130 ^ a b Robb, Graham (1997. Victor Hugo: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton. ^ Rosa, Annette, Introduction to Les Misérables, Laffont, 1985, ISBN   2-221-04689-7 ^ Robb, Graham (1999. Norton. ISBN   978-0393318999. ^ Victor Brombert. Les Misérables: Salvation from Below" in Harold Bloom, ed., Victor Hugo: Modern Critical Views (NY: Chelsea House, 1988) 198–99; Vol. 2, Book 1, Chapter 1 ^ Personalities. New York Times. 10 April 1860. Retrieved 3 January 2013. ^ Behr, Compete Book, 38 ^ La réception des Misérables en 1862 – Max Bach – PMLA, Vol. 77, No. 5 (December 1962) "les miserables, victor hugo, First Edition, 1862. ABE Books. Retrieved 21 January 2013. ^ PDF) Goncourt, Edmond et Jules, Journal, Vol. I, Laffont, 1989, ISBN   2-221-05527-6, April 1862, pp. 808–09 ^ Letter of G. Flaubert to Madame Roger des Genettes – July 1862 Archived 27 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine ^ Hyslop, Lois Bee (October 1976. Baudelaire on Les Misérables. The French Review. 41 (1) 23–29. ^ Turner, David Hancock (18 January 2013. Les Misérables and Its Critics. Jacobin. Retrieved 14 June 2016. ^ Marguerite Yourcenar. "Réception des Misérables en Grèce" PDF. ^ Réception des Misérables au Portugal Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine ^ a b c Moore, Olin H. (March 1959. Some Translations of Les Miserables. Modern Language Notes. 74 (3) 240–46. JSTOR   3040282. ^ Les Misérables by Victor Hugo – Project Gutenberg. 22 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2009. ^ Radio Programs Scheduled for this Week, The New York Times, 25 July 1937 ^ Les Misérables on IMDb ^ Behr, Edward (1989. The Complete Book of Les Misérables. NY: Arcade. pp. 152–53. ^ The Broadway League. "The official source for Broadway Information. IBDB. Retrieved 31 December 2012. ^ AlloCine, Les Misérables, retrieved 23 September 2015 ^ Cirque du Freak's Arai Launches Manga of Les Misérables Novel. ^ Otterson, Joe (9 January 2018. David Oyelowo, Dominic West, Lily Collins to Star in BBC's 'Les Misérables' Miniseries. Variety. ^ Riding, Alan (29 May 2001. Victor Hugo Can't Rest in Peace, As a Sequel Makes Trouble. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January 2013... Les Misérables: la suite rejugée en appel. Le nouvel observateur. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2013. ^ Van Gelder, Lawrence (1 February 2007. French Court Says Yes to Misérables Sequels. Retrieved 4 January 2013. External links Les Misérables at Les Misérables at the Internet Movie Database French text of Les Misérables, scroll down to see the links to the five volumes Les Misérables at Project Gutenberg – English translation. Review by Edwin Percy Whipple The Atlantic Monthly. July 1862. Les Miserables public domain audiobook at LibriVox.

About Les Misérables Hugo wrote several novels, but the only three that have continued to be much read today are Les Misérables; Notre Dame de Paris; and Les Travailleurs de la Mer, the story of a young fisherman who fights the sea to salvage a wreck and win the girl he loves, but who gives her up when he learns she prefers another man. Les Travailleurs de la Mer is read chiefly for its magnificent evocations of the sea, but Notre Dame de Paris is known the world over. Set in medieval Paris, it is one of those Romantic historical novels inspired by Sir Walter Scott, and on more than one score it bears comparison with Ivanhoe. Both are popular classics; both have suspenseful and melodramatic plots; both contain character sketches which, despite their lack of depth, have remained vivid and memorable for a century. Just as every English school child knows Rowena, Rebecca, Ivanhoe, and Sir Brian de Bois Guilbert, so every French reader knows the poor but beautiful gypsy Esmeralda with her little goat; the alchemist-priest Claude Frollo, who desires her; and Quasimodo, the "hunchback of Notre Dame. who loves her and tries to save her. The chief fascination of Notre Dame de Paris, however, lies in its powerful and living recreation of the Middle Ages. Hugo consulted many historical archives and accounts in his research for the novel, but the scenes of Paris life seem the work not of a scholar but of an eyewitness. Les Misérables has many of the same qualities as Notre Dame de Paris, but it is a far more complex creation. As early as 1829, Hugo began to gather notes for a book that would tell the story of "a saint, a man, a woman, and a child. but over the years it became enriched by a throng of new characters and multiple accretions from Hugo's philosophy and experience. When it was finally published in 1862, it had attained, both in quality and quantity, an epic sweep. In both thought and feeling, Les Misérables is far more profound than Notre Dame de Paris. In writing it, Hugo came to grips with the social problems of his own day, which demanded much reflection upon the nature of society and, therefore, upon the nature of man. In 1830, the average life expectancy of a French worker's child was two years. Hugo, unlike many of his contemporaries, did not consider this statistic as "inevitable" or "the fault of the parents. but evaluated it in human terms and cried out that suffering of such magnitude was intolerable and that such conditions must be changed through social action. What social action he considered desirable he shows us indirectly by portraying children who need to be fed, men who need jobs, and women who need protection; but also directly through M. Madeleine, who serves as an example of the ideal employer, and through the students of the 1832 revolt, who demand legislation that will make possible equal education, equal opportunity, and genuine brotherhood among men. But to support this social action Hugo must be convinced, and convince others, that the poor, the outcast — the misérables — are worth saving: that even the most impudent, scruffy street gamin has something to contribute to society, that even the most hardened convict is capable of great good. And the most appealing and enduring quality of Les Misérables is the fact that it is permeated by this unquenchable belief in the spiritual possibilities of man. Like that of Notre Dame de Paris, the plot of Les Misérables is fundamentally melodramatic; its events are often improbable, and it moves in the realm of the socially and psychologically abnormal. But this melodrama is deliberate; Hugo has chosen an extreme example, the conversion of a convict into a saint, to illustrate a general truth: Man is perfectible. Moreover, within this general framework, the sequence and interrelation of the events are credible, and the structure is very carefully plotted. Like a good play, it opens on a situation of high suspense, rises to two increasingly tense climaxes at the ends of Part Three and Part Four, and arrives at a satisfactory and logical denouement in Part Five. Its two themes, the struggle between good and evil in the soul of one man and society's struggle toward a greater good, are skillfully interwoven, and Hugo effectively immortalizes this struggle in our imaginations by a number of striking visual tableaux. Psychological subtleties are not Hugo's forte. He does not, probably cannot, delve into the baffling paradoxes, the complexities, the idiosyncrasies of the soul. His gift is for the fundamental truth. Valjean is a simple character dominated by one powerful emotion: caritas (charity — active, outgoing love for others. He helps a prostitute, protects his workers, gives constantly to the poor. His very raison d'être is literally love since his existence revolves around Cosette; when she leaves him, he dies. Javert is the watchdog of the social order. Marius is the incarnation of the romantic lover. Enjolras is the incorruptible revolutionary. All of Hugo's characters can be briefly described — in other words, labeled. But this simplicity has its own value. It allows the writer to analyze in depth a particular emotion, like a scientist studying an isolated germ. No one has captured better than Victor Hugo the arduous path of virtue or the poignancy of love. Valjean's deathbed scene has brought tears to the most sophisticated reader. Of course, Hugo's truth is the poet's not the psychologist's. He takes great liberties with reality. His characters do not always evolve in convincing steps. Valjean's conversion is almost miraculous, Thénardier's degradation unmotivated. They are larger than life. Marius loves passionately, Valjean is a modern saint, Thénardier a Satanic villain. But these are superficial criticisms. Hugo only distorts details: He scrupulously respects the basic integrity of the character. Les Misérables is the archetypal representation of eternal human emotions such as love, hate, and abnegation. Style is the reflection of the man and it is therefore not surprising that a writer of Hugo's enormous vitality should abandon classical restraint. Hugo revels in language. Ideas are stated and restated. Places are exhaustively described. Characters do not speak; they harangue, lament, eulogize. No doubt, Hugo's exuberance is excessive. His antitheses occasionally grow tiresome. His discourse can degenerate into verbiage. His pronouncements sometimes sound hollow, or worse, false. But the defect is minor, for Hugo suffers only from an overabundance of riches. His style is a mighty organ. He is at home in every idiom from the argot of the underworld to the intellectual tone of student discussion. He captures the slangy sarcasm of the gamin, the eloquence of the idealist, the lyricism of the lover. His expository prose, fed by an insatiable curiosity, deals with a range of subjects rarely encountered in a novel. Hugo writes with an absolute command of the mot juste, about history, logistics, philosophy, religion, and political morality. He remains, of course, the greatest word painter in the French language. In Les Misérables no less than in his poetry, he justifies his claim of being "the sonorous echo of the universe. Countless vignettes and a few bravura pieces such as the description of the Battle of Waterloo invest his novels with a heightened sense of reality. Few writers can rival the vividness and eloquence of Hugo's style.

Les miserables broadway. Beau discours cependant envers la Police alors qu'ils vous martyrisent parfois, surement un Chrétien. Les misérables streaming. 3:50 ITS LENIN. Pes misérables (2012. Lea's performance of this masterpiece was epic that can only be perform by such master of their craft and indeed she is... I can only name 2 who is on par when it comes to ENUNCIATION: Benson (singing voice of Ariel) Callaway (singing voice of Anastacia, Odette and Princess Jasmine sequels of Aladdin) She is One of the few musical theatre legends who swept all 5 major musical/theatre awards in one season (Miss Saigon) Tony, Olivier, Drama Desk, Critics circle and one of the most difficult to claim theatre world for someone who's going to debut in musical. And only Few can claim that... That is the reason why she's an A-lister, Broadway and West End diva.

Les misérables (2012 film. I almost was able to sing all the parts of One Day More. Sadly i failed though. Les misérables (2012) trailer. I watched this clip over and over during the past year going through hell with a girlfriend and seemily hitting bottom. And everything changed with a little luck. Don't even stop thinking it'll be better.

Les misérables 2019. This makes the hair stand up on the back of my neck and arms. I LOVE it. Les miserables pbs. Les misérables 25th anniversary event. This submission is currently being researched & evaluated! You can help confirm this entry by contributing facts, media, and other evidence of notability and mutation. About Les Miserables is a novel written by French novelist Victor Hugo and published in 1862. Often considered one of the most influential novels of the 19th century, the story has been adapted into numerous musical productions, feature films and even a musical drama film, the last of which led to the establishment of an online fandom upon its release in December 2013. History Musical Adaptations The musical adaptation of Les Miserables premiered on Broadway on March 12th, 1987, and closed on May 18th, 2003, giving it the fourth longest Broadway run. [5] 6] It won 9 Tony Awards in 1987 including Best Musical. The songs "I Dreamed a Dream" and "On My Own" from the musical became popular staples of singing competition reality shows and pop culture, with the former sung by Susan Boyle on Britain's Got Talent and the latter sung by Lea Michelle in the pilot episode of Glee. Film Adaptations There had been seven film adaptations of Les Miserable before a film adaptation of the musical was released on December 25, 2012. [1] The film starred Hugh Jackman as Jean Valjean, Anne Hathaway as Fantine, Amanda Seyfried as Cosette, and Eddie Redmayne as Marius. It grossed 148. 8M. [3] Reception The 2012 musical film received mixed reviews, earning a 70% on Rotten Tomatoes and a 63% on Metacritic. [4] It was nominated for eight Academy Awards and won three, including Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role for Anne Hathaway. Online Presence As of January 2014, the official Les Miserables Twitter account [8] has over 82. 9 followers and its Facebook page [9] has over likes 1. 6 million likes. The film is available to watch for 9. 99 on Universal Movies official YouTube channel. [21] The official trailer was uploaded to Universal Movie's YouTube channel on March 1st, 2013, and as of March 2014, it has over 220, 000 views. Fandom In addition to the show's branded social media presence, there are numerous fan sites where fans gather to critique and praise the film, including the now-outdated Tripod fan site [24] and the Les Misersables FanPop channel [23. There are several Tumblr blogs dedicated to the film, such as lesmisconfessions [10] fuckyeslesmismovie [11] and fylesmiserables. [12] As of January 2014, 13] has over 2, 600 Les Miserables submissions and Deviant Art [22] has over 19, 000 submissions tagged Les Miserables. Les Mean Girls Les Mean Girls is a meme that involves taking quotes (or slightly altered quotes) from the 2004 comedy Mean Girls and putting them on film stills from Les Miserables. The LesMeanGirls Tumblr [16] uploaded it's first imaged on January 2nd, 2013. On January 31st Buzzfeed [17] published a post titled "Les Mean Girls Is "Mean Girls" Meets "Les Miserables" And Its Glorious" that compiled the best photos from the Tumblr. The meme was also covered by sites likes Mashable [18] UpRoxx [19] and TheJaneDough. [20] Hark! a Vagrent Tackles Javert On November, 21st, 2010, illustrator Kate Beaton posted a series of comics under the heading "Javert" on her website "Hark! A Vagrant. 7] The comics poked fun at the police officer and anti-hero of Les Miserables, Inspector Javert. The comics quickly became popular on Tumblr. Musical Parodies On November 6th, 2011, YouTube Channel The Online Musical uploaded the first video in their dubstep Les Miserables series. The video featured singer Rachel Dady singing "I Dreamed a Dream" over a dubstep beat. [14] The video was followed by a dubstep version of "One Day More" on November 8th and "Empty Chairs at Empty Tables" on November 11th. The highest performing video of the three, One Day More. had gained over 110, 000 views as of January 2014. On August 30th, 2012, popular YouTube singer Nick Pitera uploaded a video to his channel titled "One Man Les Miserables Nick Pitera Medley" that featured him singing multiple roles in a Les Miserables medley. [15] As of January 2014 the video has over 4. 5 million views. Javert Javert, also known as Javert your eyes, is a reaction image and photoshop fad centered around a GIF of the character of Javert staring through a window with a look of distress on his face. It became extreme popular on Imgur in late 2014. Notable Examples Search Interest Know Your Meme Store External References.

Les misérables do you hear the people sing. This is a pretty random post by Universal. This song was blocked on all platforms in China. Les misérables 2012 cast. Les misérables by victor hugo. Les miserables escape route. Jean Valjean Jean Valjean (zhah[n] vahl- ZHAH[N. a convict of unusual strength, originally sentenced to five years in prison for stealing a loaf of bread for his sisters starving family. Attempts to escape have kept him in the galleys for nineteen years before he is released in 1815. Police Inspector Javert is sure he will be back, for his passport, proclaiming him an ex-convict, keeps him from getting work. He stops at the home of the bishop of Digne, who treats him well despite Jeans attempts to rob him of some silverware. Eventually, calling himself Father Madeleine, a man with no previous history, he appears in the town of M. sur M. His discovery of a method for making jet for jewelry brings prosperity to the whole village, and the people elect him mayor. Then his conscience forces him to confess his former identity to save a prisoner unjustly arrested. Again he escapes from the galleys and from Inspector Javert, until he is betrayed by a blackmailer. In the end, he dies peacefully, surrounded by those he loves and with his entangled past revealed. His final act is to bequeath to Cosette the bishops silver candlesticks, which he had kept for years while trying to deserve the bishops confidence. Fantine Fantine (fahn- TEEN) a beautiful girl of Paris whose attempts to find a home for her illegitimate daughter Cosette have put her into the power of money-mad M. Thénardier. Unable to meet his demands for more money after the foreman of Father Madeleines factory fires her upon learning of her earlier history, she turns prostitute, only to have M. Javert arrest her. By this time, she is dying of tuberculosis. Father Madeleine promises to look after eight-year-old Cosette. Cosette Cosette (koh- ZEHT) Fantines daughter, who grows up believing herself the daughter of Father Madeleine. She is seen and loved by a young lawyer, Marius Pontmercy; but Valjean, fearing he will be compelled to reveal her story and his own if she marries, plans to take her away. Cosette hears from Pontmercy again as she is about to leave for England with her supposed father. She sends him a note that brings his answer that he is going to seek death at the barricades. Felix Tholomyes Felix Tholomyes (fay- LEEKS toh-loh- MYEHS) a carefree, faithless student, Fantines lover and Cosettes father. M. Javert M. Javert (zhah- VEHR) a police inspector with a strong sense of duty that impels him to track down the man whom he considers a depraved criminal. Finally, after Valjean saves his life at the barricades, where the crowd wants to kill him as a police spy, he struggles between his sense of duty and his reluctance to take back to prison a man who could have saved himself by letting the policeman die. His solution is to drown himself in the Seine. Marius Pontmercy Marius Pontmercy (mahr- YEWS poh[n] mehr- SEE) a young lawyer of good blood, estranged from his aristocratic family because of his liberal views. His father, an army officer under Napoleon Bonaparte, had expressed a deathbed wish that his son try to repay his debt to Sergeant Thénardier, who had saved his life at Waterloo. Marius struggle between obligations to a rascal and his desire to protect the father of the girl he loves sets M. Javert on Jean Valjeans tracks. A farewell letter from Cosette sends him to die at the barricade during a street revolt. After he has been wounded, Valjean saves him by carrying him underground through the sewers of Paris. Eventually, Marius marries Cosette and learns, when the old man is dying, the truth about Jean Valjean. M. Thénardier M. Thénardier (tay-nahr- DEEAY) an unscrupulous, avaricious innkeeper, a veteran of Waterloo, who bleeds Fantine of money to pay for the care of Cosette. Later, he changes his name to Jondrette and begins a career of begging and blackmail while living in the Gorbeau tenement in Paris. Jean Valjean becomes one of his victims. He even demands money to let Valjean out of the sewers beneath Paris while Valjean is carrying...

Les miserables 2019. Les misÃrables. A Broadway musical based on the novel by Victor Hugo of the same name. Typically assumed to take place during the French Revolution, it in fact is set during the early 1800s, particularly during an uprising against Napoleon III in the 1830s. The plot follows Jean Valjean, a convict who broke parole, rose to become a factory owner and mayor, and adopted the child of a former factory worker-turned prostitue. Throughout the story, Valjean is pursued incessantly by Javert, a policeman who believes that, by God's will, he will recapture Valjean. Other subplots present themselves along the story, including a love triangle between Valjean's adopted daughter (Cosette) a reluctant revolutionary ( Marius Pontmercy) and a streetgirl ( Eponine Thenardier) and the wheelings and dealing of Eponine's swindling parents. A fantastic novel and a beautiful musical. My personal favorite musical and book. Musical by Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schönberg, the book is written by Victor Hugo. In this story we follow Jean Valjean, an exconvict who becomes good, but is always being chased by a policeman named Javert Unlike popular belief Les Miserables is not set during the French Revolution, but after in a student led failed revolution called the June Rebellion Les Miserables recently celebrated their 25th anniversary as a musical, and in London Jean Valjean is being played by Alfie Boe, Marius is being played by Gareth Gates, Cosette is being played by Katie Hall, and until Thurs Sept 15th 2011 Matt Lucas is playing M. Thenardier 1. The world's most popular musical. Set around the time of the French revolution, it is based on a novel by Victor Hugo. 2. A novel by Victor Hugo. 3. Several movies, including one with Geoffry Rush, Liam Neeson, and Claire Daines. To love another person is to see the face of God. -Les Mis é rables by Kathe May 19, 2005 A play based on a book which was originally written in French. All of the characters, with the exception of Marius and Cosette, die. It is set during the French Revolution. It was originally preformed on Broadway in 1987. Do you hear the people sing? Lost in the valley of the night. It is the music of a people who are climbing to the light. For the wretched of the earth there is a flame that never dies. Even the darkest night will end and the sun will rise. They will live again in freedom in the garden of the lord. They will walk behind the plowshare. They will put away the sword. The chain will be broken and all men will have their reward. Will you join in our crusade? Who will be strong and stand with me? Somewhere beyond the barricade is there a world you long to see? Do you hear the people sing? Say do you hear the distant drums? It is the future that they bring when tomorrow comes. by Katie January 02, 2004 A novel written by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that has film and musical adaptations. Consisting of 5 parts, all of which are set in different times, the novel can be considered as 5 volumes rather than the 1 book. The most well known and regarded part is set in June 1832 and based loosely around the June rebellion. Important characters and dates in this section are accurate as Victor Hugo (the author) was present for part of said rebellion. Les Misérables also happens to be the best selling musical of all time. It was first opened and performed in English on the 8th of October, 1985 by the Royal Shakespeare Company. The film was released in 2012. Les Misérables is amazing but the film casting, as well as the casting in previous musical productions, has sparked conflict within fans. Fans of the novel are often not fond of the musical as it is inaccurate, The best musical to ever hit htis plannet. Set in the time of the french revolution this brings to life how people lived back then. Eponine ROCKS and Javert is kool. The music is beautiful and meaningful and wonderful to sing. Nothing can beat it. 'Without me, his world will go on turning. A World thats full of happiness that i have never known. I love him, I love Him, I love him. But only on my own. Eponine, On my Own.

Les misérables 1998. Part of the 2018-2019 Broadway In Richmond Series Cameron Mackintosh presents the new production of Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schönbergs Tony Award-winning musical phenomenon, Les Misérables, direct from an acclaimed two-and-a-half-year return to Broadway. With its glorious new staging and dazzlingly reimagined scenery inspired by the paintings of Victor Hugo, this breathtaking new production has left both audiences and critics awestruck, cheering “Les Miz is born again! ” (NY1.  Set against the backdrop of 19th-century France, Les Misérables tells an enthralling story of broken dreams and unrequited love, passion, sacrifice and redemption – a timeless testament to the survival of the human spirit. Featuring the thrilling score and beloved songs “I Dreamed A Dream, ” “On My Own, ” “Stars. “Bring Him Home, ” “One Day More, ” and many more, this epic and uplifting story has become one of the most celebrated musicals in theatrical history. Seen by more than 70 million people in 44 countries and in 22 languages around the globe, Les Misérables is still the worlds most popular musical, breaking box office records everywhere in its 32nd year. Ticket Information Season tickets available at or by calling (804) 592-3401. Individual show tickets are available August 3 at the Altria Theater and Dominion Energy Center box offices, by phone at (800) 514-3849 and online at Ticket prices subject to applicable fees. Ticket prices and sections subject to change. Group Sales Save 10% on tickets when purchasing 10+ through our Group Sales Office. Call 804-592-3401 or email us at [email protected. No discount offered on Friday evening, Saturday matinee or Saturday evening performances. Run Time This production runs 2 hours and 55 minutes which includes an intermission. Age Appropriateness Recommended for ages 10+ LES MISÉRABLES has been a mainstay on the stage for over 30 years and while this epic musical is an inspiring story of love, courage and redemption it also contains many themes related to complex and difficult subject matter including social revolution, poverty and prostitution. When choosing to bring the family to LES MISÉRABLES, parents should make their own decision based on the maturity of their child.

Les misérables dreamed a dream. Les miserables musical. Bravo un bon film😍👍. Les misérables play. Les misérables movie. Les misérables in concert: the 25th anniversary. Les misérables in concert: the 25th anniversary movie. Les misérables ladj ly. Still selling piss I see. Les miserables 2012. Les misérables 85th academy awards. Read the novel( Chinese) and watched this movie when I was twelve. Don't think I understood everything, but still it is beautiful, soul-touching and always reminds me of many naive thoughts during adolescence. Les miserables movie. Les miserables. Les misérables soundtrack. 1:54 - is no one gonna talk about the scars on Jean wrists? I remember the first time I saw this movie I literally gasped. I still flinch every time I see them. And his little “Please, Cosette... ” its just so heart breaking.

Les Miserables Summary When Victor Hugo's novel Les Miserables first came out in 1862, people in Paris and elsewhere lined up to buy it Although critics were less receptive, the novel was an instant popular success. The French word "miserables" means both poor wretches and scoundrels or villains The novel offers a huge cast that includes both kinds of "miserables. A product of France's most prominent Romantic writer, Les Miserables ranges far and wide. It paints a... (read more from the Study Guide) Study Pack The Les Miserables Study Pack contains: Les Miserables Study Guide Encyclopedia Articles (2) 817 words, approx. 3 pages Les Miserables Billed as & x0022;the world& x0027;s most popular musical. x0022; Les Miserables has been translated into numerous languages and has been performed in theaters all over the world. With... Read more 3, 905 words, approx. 14 pages by Victor Hugo Victor Hugo, the son of a general in Napoleon's empire, was born in 1802 in Besancon, France. Although raised by his mother to be a royalist, Hugo's inclination to rep... Victor Hugo Biographies (5) 5, 918 words, approx. 20 pages When Victor Hugo died in 1885 at the age of eighty-three, one million mourners gathered in the streets of Paris to see his corpse borne to the Pantheon. Buried with honors usually reserved for heads o... 14, 862 words, approx. 50 pages No century of French literature has been better represented by a single author than the nineteenth, and no writer better personifies the French nineteenth century than Victor Hugo. His life span corre... 11, 841 words, approx. 40 pages Victor Hugo, one of France's most prolific nineteenth-century authors, wrote novels, poems, and dramatic works. His career as a playwright began in 1816 and ended almost sixty years later. The dramas... 15, 001 words, approx. 51 pages On 22 May 1885 Victor Hugo died, prompting international mourning unprecedented for a literary figure. Within an hour the periodical Gil Blas published a special edition, which sold out everywhere, a... 2, 304 words, approx. 8 pages The French author Victor Marie, Vicomte Hugo (1802-1885) was the supreme poet of French romanticism. He is noted for the breadth of his creation, the versatility that made him as much at ease in the... Essays & Analysis (16) 706 words, approx. 3 pages Les Mis& 233;rables uses philanthropic and loving tones to demonstrate the transformation of Jean Valjean from a hardened convict to a humanitarian. The diction of Les Mis& 233;rables amplifies the c... 1, 045 words, approx. 4 pages Everyone goes throughout there lives in a certain social standing. Whether it may be they're considered to me rich, or poor, or popular, or nerdy. Pretty much as you go through out life you place your... 574 words, approx. 2 pages Victor Hugo lived in France in the mid to late 19th century as a republican, playwright, poet, and novelist. France was consumed in a long period of political instability, and had several bloody conf... 560 words, approx. 2 pages Although he was first a convict, Jean Valjean eventually became a moral person. Victor Hugo portrayed Valjean in Les Mis& 233;rables as someone his readers should look up to. At the end of the book. 1, 633 words, approx. 6 pages The story Les Miserables by Victor Hugo, began with introducing the main character, Jean Valjean to us. He was a convict, who had to do time in prison for stealing a loaf of bread for his family. Duri... 947 words, approx. 4 pages First of all, the story starts with a character named Jean Val jean. He is a victim of harsh penal laws of the nineteenth century. In those days, penal laws are more like laws in ancient civiliz... 974 words, approx. 4 pages Paris, France- While picking up a book the other day to read, I read it with great detail in goal to find mistakes. Not just spelling or capitalization, I am talking about falsified facts and details... 1, 484 words, approx. 5 pages Les Mis& 233;ables is the story of Jean Valjean as he struggles to erase the stain that being a convict has left on his life, but the yellow passport signifying he is an ex-convict is like a brand tha... 455 words, approx. 2 pages At the beginning of the novel Jean Valjean is introduced right after he has been released from the galleys. He is a ragged traveler and is about 46 or 47 years old. He is of medium height and appears... 614 words, approx. 3 pages Les Mis& 233;rables is a novel of many components. It has innumerable themes that can be applied to life, although it is a fictional novel. It is a novel which exposes the life of the poor, and the ig... 1, 739 words, approx. 6 pages Divine Intervention and Biblical Symbolism as seen in Les Mis& 233;rables Morality and revolution are two focuses presented in the Catholic Bible. These two ideas, hand in hand, also mold the themat... 303 words, approx. 2 pages "After he had fully determined that the young man was at the bottom of this state of affairs, and that it all came from him, he, Jean Valjean, the regenerated man, the man who had labored so much upon... 1, 177 words, approx. 4 pages Les Mis& 233;rables is a captivating French novel, which follows the life of an unfortunate man named Jean Valijean. Jean Valijean is an escaped prisoner, who was convicted for stealing a loaf of bre... 1, 002 words, approx. 4 pages Throughout history, there have been numerous debates about the presence of a Supreme Being or many supreme beings, for that matter. The debates have led to wars, unaccountable numbers of deaths, fami... 516 words, approx. 2 pages Nowadays, heroes are hard to be found. Every now and again, the heroic side of a person may appear, but they then return to hibernation. What would an ideal hero be like? In the novel Les Miserables. 1, 079 words, approx. 4 pages In Les Miserables, by Victor Hugo, Jean Valjean strives to redeem himself while Javert strives to enforce justice. The goals of these two men, one who was formerly a convict and one is a police office... Lesson Plan Les Miserables Lesson Plans contain 140 pages of teaching material, including: Les Miserables Lesson Plans.

Literature Guides Introduction Widely regarded as one of the greatest and most recognized French writers, Victor Hugo was the son of a general in Napoleons army. As such, he spent a significant portion of his childhood travelling Italy and Spain before joining his mother in Paris at the age of eleven. It was there that he developed his love affair with books and poetry. Hugo experimented with many different genres of literature, however, it was his plays that proved the most successful. The July 1830 Revolution is credited as the driving force for many of Hugos best works, most remarkably, the literary masterpiece The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831. Not long after, Hugo developed a keen interest in politics and was awarded a seat on Frances National Assembly. Taking a predominately leftist stance, Hugo found himself outcast from France in the early 1850s after voicing his disapproval of the monarch Napoleon. Hugo did not return to his homeland for nearly two decades and continued to be active in the literary world up until his passing in 1885. To date, Hugo is recognized as not only a literary genius, but also a French national hero. Even now, nearly a century and a half later, the writings of Victor Hugo are at the foundation of popular culture, having spawned many movies and inspired countless other books. Hugo is thought to be a leader of the Romantic Movement and the creator of a unique brand of literature that combines imaginative realism with exaggerated symbolism and realistic elements. The characters in his stories serve the purpose of highlighting significant social issues, as Hugos fondness for politics compelled him to bring light to issues like universal suffrage and the availability of affordable education. Hugo firmly believed that it was his duty to stand up for those less fortunate than himself, a quality that drew him widespread appreciation. Interestingly enough, Les Miserables was conceptualized two decades before being published in 1862. Les Miserables is viewed as a prolific example of humanitarian efforts that compel compassion and inspire hope in the face of social injustice and adversity. Even more so, it is a piece of history that paints a very clear picture of French politics and society during the nineteenth century. In writing Les Miserables, Hugo hoped that he would inspire a more democratic future. Hugos fondness for imaginative realism is evident in Les Miserables. The novel takes places in an artificially crafted ‘hell on earth that boldly stresses the three primary issues of the nineteen century. Each of the three primary characters are used to symbolize these issues: Jean Valjean signifies the deprivation of man in the proletariat Fantine signifies the oppression of women through starvation Cossette signifies the atrophy of children in darkness It is widely argued that Hugo created each character to symbolically represent much larger social issues without minimizing any of the other. Summary After serving a nineteen year sentence for stealing a loaf of bread, criminal Jean Valjean is released from a French prison. Upon arriving to the small town of Digne, Valjean learns that none of the townspeople are willing to offer him shelter because of his criminal past. Seeking refuge, Valjean comes across the home of the bishop Myriel, who offers him kindness and a warm place to stay. Not quite used to life outside of the prison, Valjean steals silverware from the bishop and is later arrested. However, upon his arrest, the bishop lies to the police, insisting that he gave the silverware to Valjean as a gift. Being spared what would have undoubtedly been a return trip to prison, Valjean promises the bishop that he will do whatever he needs to do in order to become an honest, law abiding man. With the intent of keeping his promise, Valjean recreates himself as the inventor Madeleine and endeavours to create a new life in the town of Montreuil-sur-mer. While there, Valjean creates a unique manufacturing process that brings great wealth to the town and is later elected as mayor. Fantine, a beautiful young lady from Montreuil, has relocated to Paris. While there, she meets and falls in love with Tholomyes, a student from a prosperous family who romances the young Fantine but eventually abandons her after she falls pregnant. Being left with no way of supporting herself or the daughter she must now raise alone, Fantine makes the decision to return to her homeland with her infant daughter, Cosette. During her journey, Fantine comes to the sobering realization that she will never be capable of finding employment if the people are aware of her fatherless child. While travelling through Montfermeil, she encounters the Thenardiers; they are the keepers of the local inn. The Thenardier family agree to take care of Cosette in exchange for a regular monthly allowance. While in Montreuil, Fantine seeks out employment at the factory owned by Madeleine. However, upon learning about her daughter, Fantine is fired. In turn, the Thenardier family request an increase in allowance in order to continue caring for Cosette. Spurned by an inability to support herself or her daughter, Fantine turns to prostitution. Eventually, Fantine is arrested by the local police chief, Javert. Had it not been for the intervention of Madeleine, Fantine would have been sent off to prison. Having fallen ill, Fantine asks to be able to see her daughter, Cosette, and asks that Madeleine send for her. However, before he is able to do so, he must appease Javert who has discovered the truth about his identity. Javert informs Madeleine that they have found a man who has been accused of being the criminal Valjean and later prompts a confession by Madeleine. As Javert arrives to arrest Valjean, Fantine dies. Several years later, Valjean escapes from prison and ventures towards Montfermeil where he buys Cosette from the Thenardiers. It is revealed that the Thernardiers were an awful bunch who neglected and abused Cosette while treating their own daughters like royalty. Valjean takes Cosette and moves to  a destitute area in Paris. However, after having been discovered by Javert, the pair must flee. They are lucky to find refuge in a convent, and Cosette receives an education while Valjean earns a tidy wage as a gardener. Marius Pontmercy, the grandson of wealthy M. Gillenormand, has been estranged from his father due to their differences in political affiliation. However, after the passing of his father, Marius learns more about him and comes to relate to his democratic views. Angry with his grandfather for having kept him away from his father, Marius moves out of the house and adapts to life as a struggling law student. While in school, Marius befriends a group of radicals known as the Friend of ABC, who are spearheaded by Enjolras.  One day, Marius encounters Cosette at a local park and is immediately smitten. However, Valjean is immensely protective of the girl and tries to prevent the two young people from meeting. However, their paths eventually cross once more when Valjean makes a social welfare visit to the Jondrettes, Mariuss lower class neighbors. As it turns out, the Jondrettes are actually the Thenardiers, who after having lost their inn, were forced to relocate to Paris under a new identity. When Valjean leaves, Mr. Thenardier announces his plan to rob Valjean. Disgusted by the announcement, Marius contacts the local police to inform them of the crime that is about to happen. Unfortunately, the police inspector is none other than Javert. Javert arrests the Thenardiers, but Valjean is able to slip away before he is recognized. Eponine, the daughter of Thenardier, is in love with Marius and assists him in locating Cosette. After successfully contacting Cosette, the two declare their feelings for each other. However, the excitement is cut short. Valjean fears that he will lose Cosette and doesnt want her mixed up in the political unrest that plagues the city. The two make plans to move to London, England. Out of pure desperation, Marius seeks the assistance of his grandfather and asks for his permission to marry Cosette. Their encounter ends in a fight. Marius later learns that Cosette and Valjean have gone. Broken hearted, Marius decides to accompany his radical friends, who have begun to revolt. Armed with pistols, Marius sets out for the barricades. The political uprising appears to be frivolous, however, Marius and his friends refuse to stand down and continue on in their fight for freedom and democracy. The students soon learn that Javert has infiltrated their group. Labeling him a spy, Enjolras captures him. The army has begun to fight against the group, and in the heat of it all, Eponine jumps in front of the bullet of a riffle to save the life of Marius. As she lays dying in Mariuss arms, she hands him a letter written by Cosette. Marius pens a reply and asks a boy named Gavroche to deliver it. Valjean intercepts the note, and after reading it, sets out to save Marius. When Valjean reaches the barricade, he volunteers to execute Javert. However, instead of executing him, he lets him go. When the army reaches the barricade, Valjean drags the wounded Marius through the sewers in order to escape. After the pair emerge, Javert arrests him without hesitation. However, Valjean convinces Jalvet to allow him to escort Marius, who is dying, to the home of his grandfather. Javert is plagued by the thoughts of doing the right thing; should he uphold his commitment to the law, or should he uphold his debt to Valjean? In the end, Javert releases Valjean and commits suicide by jumping into the river and drowning. Marius recovers fully and reconciles with his grandfather, who later consents to the marriage of Marius and Cosette. Their wedding is a joyous celebration, however, joy turns to fear when Valjean confesses his past to Marius. The news of his criminal past alarms Marius, who still has not learned that it was Valjean who saved him at the barricades. Marius attempts to prevent Cosette from seeing the man who loved her like a daughter, and this throws Valjean into a deep depression. Marius later learns from the Thenardiers that it was Valjean who saved him and he sets out to correct his wrongdoing. He discloses everything to Cosette and the pair rush off to see Valjean just before he takes his final breath. Happy to have his daughter by his side once more, Valjean passes away with a full heart. Characters Analysis Jean Valjean Jean Valjean is the pseudo-father figure to Cosette. Valjean received a nineteen year prison sentence for stealing a load of bread. After experiencing the kindness of a bishop, Valjean renounces his life of crime and vows to lead a prosperous life. He develops a manufacturing process that nets him a comfortable lifestyle. He finds love he never thought possible in Cosette, the illegitimate daughter of a prostitute, and devotes his life to helping those in dire straits. Over the years, Valjean adopts many different personas in order to evade the police. He spends his entire life looking for forgiveness for his wrongdoings and searching for redemption. Upon his death bed, he finally makes peace with his past. Cosette Cosette is the illegitimate daughter of Fantine. Upon the death of her mother, she is adopted by Valjean. Throughout her childhood, Cosette was raised to be the servant of the Thenardier family in Montfermeil. However, despite her tumultuous upbringing, she maintains a positive outlook and always sees the best in people. While living with Valjean and a group of nuns in Petit-Picpus, Cosette receives an excellent education and grows into a caring and well-rounded young woman. She later finds true love in Marius, the grandson of a wealthy businessman. On the outside, Cosette appears complacent and innocent, however, her willing participation in Valjeans many attempts to thwart the law paint a more daring and intellectual tale. Javert Javert is the local police inspector. He has a firm belief in law and the pursuit of justice and has committed his life to upholding the strict penal codes of France. In the beginning, it appears that Javert is incapable of showing compassion or taking pity on those less fortunate than himself. He carries out his work with extreme precision, and hunts for lawbreakers in the way that a beast would hunt its prey. Javert has a keen desire to capture Valjean and bring him to justice. Ultimately, Javert battles with his inner self when trying to decide if Valjean truly deserves to be punished. In the end, it is this personal struggle that forces him to undermine the very belief in the system that he has based his entire life on. Fantine Fantine is a typical small town girl. She leaves her home in search of a brighter future in the city. Whilst there, she falls in love and has an affair with a young man who abandons her after learning that she is with child. Despite being sickly, Fantine makes every effort possible to support herself and her daughter, Cosette. Even as her life begins to fall to shambles, and she turns to prostitution in order to make ends meet, she never stops loving her child. Fantine is symbolic of the nineteenth century destruction of the less fortunate. Marius Pontmery Marius is the son of George, an active member of Napoleons army. The family did not approve of Georges political affiliations and exiled him. Marius was raised in the home of his grandfather, Gillenormand. However, upon learning the true reason for having been kept from his father, Marius leaves on a journey to discover himself. Marius is not yet wise to the ways of the world, but desires change. Having bonded with a group of radicals, Marius fights on the barricades and eventually marries the love of his life – Cosette. Myriel Myriel is the bishop of the town of Digne. His love for his fellow men has made him quite popular. The bishop shows kindness and compassion to Valjean and inspires him to live a life of gratitude, seeking out ways to help those less fortunate. M. Thenardier The sire Thernardier is an awful, greedy man who, under false pretences, agrees to care for Cosette. He ends up abusing the girl and turning her into his familys slave. Thenardier is driven by greed and will extort anyone he can. He is capable of anything, including murder. Mme. Thenardier Equally as horrible as her husband, she finds joy in torturing Cosette. Later in the novel, she plays an eager role in helping her husband to plan to rob Valjean and Cosette. Eponine The eldest Thenardier daughter. Eponine is a product of her upbringing and sees no harm in helping her parents destroy the lives of those around them. She is later redeemed by her pure love for Marius. As she lays dying, she is revealed as one of the most heroic characters in the novel. Gillenormand The elder grandfather of Marius, his mothers father. Gillenormand keeps Marius away from his father, George, because he worries that he will corrupt Marius with his political views. Gillenormand is a strict monarchist and is opposed to the French Revolution. Despite his views, Gillenormand truly loves Marius and wants nothing more than for his grandson to be happy. Gavroche The youngest son of the evil Thernardiers, Gavroche is kind and generous. He was kicked out of his family home at an early age and shows bravery well beyond his years. Important Quotes “Valjean strained his eyes in the distance and called out…”Petit Gervais! …” His cries died away into the mist, without even awakening an echo…[H]is knees suddenly bent under him, as if an invisible power suddenly overwhelmed him with the weight of his bad conscience; he fell exhausted…and cried out, “Im such a miserable man! ” In Book Two of “Fantine” Valjeans encounter with Petit Gervais after leaving the bishops home. It is here when he first realized his inability to keep his promise to live the life of an honest man – he begins to recognize how immoral he is. Valjean pleads for forgiveness, but receives no response, not even an echo. It is this portrayal of desolation that suggests that Valjean might be experiencing a feeling of emptiness, further expressed when he refers to himself as ‘miserable. To owe life to a malefactor…to be, in spite of himself, on a level with a fugitive from justice…to betray society in order to be true to his own conscience; that all these absurdities…should accumulate on himself – this is what prostrated him. This quote from Book Four of Jean Valjean is used to illustrate the frame of mind that Javert has prior to committing suicide. It is clear how much of an impact Valjeans mercy and compassion have had on Javert. Torn between fulfilling his obligation to the law, or repaying his debt to Valjean, Javert is extremely bewildered. In the end, it is unconditional love for mankind that wins. Javert feels that there is no way that he can continue his commitment to the law without bias, and drowns himself. Symbolism Hugo utilizes symbolism quite consistently throughout the novel. However, the most prevalent symbols are the bishops silver candlesticks, and the use of animals such as snakes, birds and insects. It is noted that the silver candlesticks, belonging to the Bishop, are symbolic of compassion as they create a beacon of light that delivers hope and love. In the start of the novel, the author plays with the contrast between light and dark to support the differences between the bishop and Valjean. When the bishop offers his candlesticks to Valjean, he is symbolically transferring the light inside of him to Valjean as he asks him to promise to lead an honest life. In speaking of snakes, insects and birds, Hugo regularly uses animals to describe the personas of his main characters. Cosette and Gavroche, for example, where described as ‘creatures of flight during their orphaned years. Whereas the Thernardiers we commonly referred to as ‘snakes. Key Facts Full title: Les Miserables Written By: Victor Hugo Type of literary work: Novel, and later musical. Original Language: French Time and Place of Origin: Paris and The Channel Islands, 1845 to 1862 First published: 1862 Published by: Pagnerre Viewpoint: Les Miserables is told from the point of view of an all-seeing story teller who frequently addresses the readers. The story teller not only has a deep understanding of the characters, but also is quick to deliver a strong viewpoint of the political unrest of the times. Setting: France, 1789-1832 Major Character: Jean Valjean Themes: Love and compassion; social injustice; the French Revolution Symbols: The bishops candlesticks; snakes and birds Primary conflict: Jean Valjean struggles with letting go of his life as a thief and transforming into an honest and caring man. As time goes on, he fights to stay one step ahead of police inspector, Javert, who wants nothing more than to capture him and send him back to prison. Valjeans most important mission is to raise his adopted daughter, Cosette.

Les misérables broadway. I still give Tom Hooper for directing Cats. Such a brave step for CGI Development. 49:12 The Robbery. Les miserables cast. Les misérables musical. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Les Misérables Cosette chez les Thénardier (illustration d' Émile Bayard, 1886. Auteur Victor Hugo Pays France Genre Roman Éditeur Albert Lacroix et Cie Date de parution 1862 Illustrateur Émile Bayard Nombre de pages 2 598 (éd. Testard, 1890) Chronologie Claude Gueux Les Travailleurs de la mer modifier Les Misérables est un roman de Victor Hugo paru en 1862. Il a donné lieu à de nombreuses adaptations, au cinéma et sur de nombreux autres supports. Dans ce roman emblématique de la littérature française qui décrit la vie de pauvres gens dans Paris et la France provinciale du XIX e  siècle, l'auteur s'attache plus particulièrement au destin du bagnard Jean Valjean. C'est un roman historique, social et philosophique dans lequel on retrouve les idéaux du romantisme et ceux de Victor Hugo concernant la nature humaine. Résumé L'action se déroule en France au cours du premier tiers du XIX e  siècle, entre la bataille de Waterloo (1815) et les émeutes de juin 1832. On y suit, sur cinq tomes, la vie de Jean Valjean, de sa sortie du bagne jusqu'à sa mort. Autour de lui gravitent les personnages, dont certains vont donner leur nom aux différents tomes du roman, témoins de la misère de ce siècle, misérables eux-mêmes ou proches de la misère: Fantine, Cosette, Marius, mais aussi les Thénardier (dont Éponine, Azelma et Gavroche) ainsi que le représentant de la loi, Javert. Tome I: Fantine Livre 1: Un juste Le premier livre s'ouvre sur le long portrait de M gr  Myriel, évêque de Digne, où, malgré son rang, il vit très modestement en compagnie de sa sœur, Baptistine, et d'une servante, M me  Magloire. Ce religieux est un juste qui se contente du strict nécessaire pour distribuer le reste de ses économies aux pauvres. Pénétré de charité chrétienne, il laisse sa porte grande ouverte et fraternise avec ceux que la société rejette. Livre 2: La chute En 1815, Jean Valjean est libéré du bagne de Toulon après y avoir purgé une peine de dix-neuf ans: victime d'un destin tragique, initialement condamné à cinq ans de bagne pour avoir volé un pain afin de nourrir sa famille, il voit sa peine prolongée à la suite de plusieurs tentatives d'évasion. En liberté, son passé de forçat l'accable: ainsi, dans chaque ville qu'il traverse, contraint à faire connaître de la mairie son statut d'ancien bagnard qu'un passeport jaune matérialise, il est universellement rejeté et seul M gr  Myriel l'accueille pour le gîte et le couvert. Jean Valjean, épris de haine, frappé d'injustice, et peu conscient de ses actes, vole l'argenterie de l'évêque et s'enfuit par la fenêtre. Lorsqu'il est arrêté et ramené par les gendarmes chez M gr  Myriel, celui-ci lui pardonne et déclare lui avoir offert son argenterie, le sauvant ainsi de la condamnation pour récidive. Il engage Valjean à accepter deux chandeliers supplémentaires contre la vertu et l'intégrité de sa conduite future. Perdu dans ses pensées, Valjean vole, sans en avoir vraiment l'intention, une pièce de 40 sous à un ramoneur savoyard d'une dizaine d'années nommé Petit Gervais. Le jeune Savoyard fait tomber la pièce qui finit sous le pied de Valjean, celui-ci ne s'en aperçoit pas et chasse l'enfant qui lui demande plusieurs fois de la lui rendre. Lorsque Valjean voit la pièce, il essaie, mais en vain, de retrouver l'enfant pour lui restituer son argent. Le vol est rapporté aux autorités, Valjean est désormais récidiviste, recherché par la police, risquant la prison à vie. Il doit donc cacher son identité. Ce sera sa dernière faiblesse, car il passe définitivement du côté du bien. Livre 3: En l'année 1817 Ce livre commence par une description de la vie parisienne en 1817 avec ses mondanités, ses célébrités éphémères, ses hésitations politiques (disparition de l'ancien régime napoléonien et mise en place du nouveau régime monarchiste. C'est également l'occasion de présenter Fantine et ses amours de grisette, de même que ses amies Favourite, Dahlia et Zéphine ainsi que leurs amants. Le livre s'achève cependant par un coup de théâtre: les quatre jeunes gens mettent brutalement fin à leurs relations et abandonnent les jeunes filles sans prévenir pour rentrer dans leurs familles prendre un métier et se marier. Or, Fantine avait eu un enfant... Livre 4: Confier, c'est quelquefois livrer Huit mois après avoir été abandonnée, Fantine est contrainte de quitter Paris et de retourner dans sa ville natale, Montreuil-sur-Mer. Elle passe par Montfermeil, où elle tombe par hasard sur les Thénardier, qui tiennent une gargote, et leur confie spontanément sa fille, la jeune Cosette, contre une petite pension. Malheureusement, les Thénardier sont des gens avides et sans scrupules, qui comprennent rapidement l'intérêt financier que représente la fillette. Sitôt l'enfant chez eux, ils montrent leur véritable nature. Malgré son jeune âge, Cosette est maltraitée par toute la famille et rapidement contrainte aux travaux ménagers. Parallèlement, les Thénardier vendent le trousseau de la petite fille et l'habillent de haillons tout en réclamant régulièrement des augmentations du tarif de la pension à Fantine. Celle-ci, d'abord ponctuellement payée, commence à faire l'objet d'irrégularités, à mesure que Fantine s'enfonce dans la misère. Livre 5: La descente Jean Valjean ferme les yeux de Fantine. Illustration d' Émile Bayard (1862. Jean Valjean reparaît à l'autre bout de la France, sous le nom de M.  Madeleine et opère sa complète rédemption: enrichi honnêtement en améliorant la fabrication dans lindustrie des verroteries noires, il devient le bienfaiteur de la ville de Montreuil-sur-Mer, dont il sera nommé maire. En regard de l'ascension de Jean Valjean, son rachat pourrait-on dire (« je vous achète votre âme » lui avait dit l'évèque) on assiste à la chute de Fantine, fille-mère qui, pour nourrir sa fille unique Cosette, ira de déchéance en déchéance, jusqu'à la prostitution et la mort. Fantine habite à Montreuil-sur-Mer, et travaille à la fabrique de M. Madeleine, mais celui-ci ignore tout de son calvaire, jusqu'à une altercation à la suite de laquelle elle est menacée d'emprisonnement. Ce tome est l'occasion de présenter les personnages qui vont suivre Jean Valjean du début à la fin de ses aventures. Les Thénardier, qui plongeront de la malhonnêteté et la méchanceté ordinaire au banditisme, à la fois dénoncés comme criminels et plaints comme victimes de la société. Ils sont cependant aussi les parents de Gavroche, dont l'héroïsme s'illustrera plus tard. Javert, qui incarne la justice implacable et rigide, a mis toute son énergie au service de la loi, sa religion. Peut-on croire Valjean-Madeleine sauvé, réintégré dans la société? Victor Hugo ne le veut pas. Pour lui, l'honnêteté ne peut souffrir la compromission. Aux termes d'une longue nuit d'hésitation, M.  Madeleine ira se dénoncer pour éviter à un pauvre diable, un simple d'esprit nommé Champmathieu, reconnu à tort comme étant Jean Valjean, d'être condamné à sa place. Tous les bienfaits qu'aurait pu apporter M. Madeleine ne pourraient compenser, selon Victor Hugo, la seule injustice faite à Champmathieu. Jean Valjean échappe cependant à la justice, retourne dans la clandestinité pour respecter une dernière promesse faite à Fantine qu'il a assistée à l'heure de sa mort: sauver Cosette, pensionnaire asservie et malheureuse des Thénardier. Tome II: Cosette Dans ce tome, deux livres encadrent l'action, l'un est consacré à la bataille de Waterloo et l'autre à la vie monacale. Victor Hugo aborde le second tome des Misérables par la bataille de Waterloo qui s'est déroulée sept ans plus tôt. Le lien avec l'intrigue est très ténu: Thénardier aurait « sauvé » le père de Marius à l'issue de cette bataille. Sous ce prétexte dramatique léger, Victor Hugo place là une réflexion qui lui tient à cœur sur la bataille de Waterloo, bataille qui voit la chute d'un personnage qu'il admire, Napoléon I er. Depuis longtemps, Victor Hugo est hanté par cette bataille. Celle-ci lui inspirera le poème « L'Expiation » du livre V des Châtiments. Il a refusé à plusieurs reprises de se rendre sur les lieux et c'est seulement en 1861 qu'il visite le champ de bataille et c'est là qu'il termine ce récit épique. La Parenthèse (avant-dernier livre) que constitue la réflexion sur la vie monacale, la foi et la prière, pour surprenante chez un révolutionnaire comme Victor Hugo, se présente comme une profession de foi. Réquisitoire violent contre l'Église carcan, c'est aussi une apologie de la méditation et de la foi véritable. « Nous sommes pour la religion contre les religions. », précise Victor Hugo. Le reste de ce tome est consacré à la traque de Jean Valjean. Victor Hugo met dans ce récit toutes ses qualités de romancier dramatique au service d'un suspense prenant, avec rupture de rythme, changement de focalisation. Alternance de période d'accalmie (avec Cosette à Montfermeil, puis à la maison Gorbeau) et de poursuite haletante. Échappant à Javert à la fin du tome I, Jean Valjean est rattrapé à Paris, mais a eu le temps de mettre de côté une forte somme d'argent. Envoyé aux galères, il s'en échappe, retourne chercher Cosette et se réfugie à Paris dans la masure Gorbeau. Javert le retrouve et le poursuit la nuit à travers les rues de Paris. Jean Valjean ne trouve son salut que dans le couvent du Petit-Picpus sous la protection de M.  Fauchelevent, un charretier dont il a sauvé la vie à Montreuil-sur-Mer. Après un épisode dramatique de fausse inhumation, Jean Valjean s'installe au couvent avec Cosette sous le nom d'Ultime Fauchelevent et sera appelé par les religieuses « l'autre Fauvent ». Victor Hugo présente un Jean Valjean sublime; la chute ne lui a pas fait perdre les qualités morales qu'il possédait en tant que M.  Madeleine: c'est en sauvant un matelot de la noyade qu'il s'échappe des galères; c'est à cause de sa générosité qu'il est repéré par Javert. Tome III: Marius L'action se déroule entre 1830 et 1832. Le père Fauchelevent est mort. Jean Valjean et Cosette, alors âgée de 15 ans, ont quitté le couvent. Le tome s'ouvre et se referme sur le personnage de Gavroche. Victor Hugo se lance dans une longue digression sur le gamin de Paris, âme de la ville dont la figure emblématique est Gavroche, fils des Thénardier, mais surtout garçon des rues. Victor Hugo axe tout le tome sur la personne de Marius en qui il se reconnaît jeune. Il avouera même avoir écrit avec Marius ses quasi-mémoires [ 1. On y découvre Marius, petit-fils d'un royaliste, fils d'un bonapartiste, qui choisit son camp à 17 ans, quitte son grand-père et fréquente les amis de l'ABC, groupe de révolutionnaires idéalistes, et côtoie la misère. Son destin croise celui de Cosette dont il tombe amoureux. On peut remarquer à ce sujet la tendresse de Victor Hugo décrivant avec humour et dérision ses premiers émois amoureux. Faisant fi de toute vraisemblance dramatique, Victor Hugo provoque la rencontre de Jean Valjean (alias Madeleine – Fauchelevent – Leblanc – Fabre) avec Thénardier (alias Jondrette – Fabantou – Genflot) sous les yeux d'un Marius témoin invisible de la confrontation, dans cette même masure Gorbeau rencontrée au tome II. Superbe face-à-face de deux personnages aux noms multiples qui se cachent de la justice, mais dont l'un est descendu jusqu'au fond de l'infamie tandis que l'autre accède à la noblesse morale. Toute la fin du tome est digne des Mystères de Paris avec bande de voleurs et d'assassins (les Patron-Minette) guet-apens, victime prise en otage et menacée, intervention de la police et apparition de Javert [ 2. Marius découvre ainsi que le sauveur de son père est un infâme bandit et que le père de celle dont il est amoureux se cache de la police. Guet-apens dans la masure Gorbeau La bande criminelle de Patron-Minette. Illustration de Gustave Brion. Tome IV: L'idylle rue Plumet et l'épopée rue Saint-Denis Toute l'action de ce tome est sous-tendue par l' émeute de juin 1832 et la barricade de la rue Saint-Denis. Victor Hugo estime même que c'est en quelque sorte là le cœur du roman [ 3. Le premier livre replace les évènements dans le contexte historique de la situation insurrectionnelle à Paris au début de l'année 1832. Ensuite se déroulent en parallèle plusieurs vies qui vont converger vers la rue de la Chanvrerie [ 4. Victor Hugo précise d'abord le personnage d' Éponine, amoureuse déçue de Marius, ange du bonheur quand elle confie à Marius l'adresse de Cosette ou quand elle défend le domicile de celle-ci contre l'attaque de Thénardier et sa bande, ange du malheur quand elle cache à Marius la lettre de Cosette ou quand elle l'envoie sur la barricade. Éponine martyre de l'amour quand elle intercepte la balle destinée à Marius et qu'elle meurt dans ses bras. L'auteur renoue ensuite avec le parcours de Jean Valjean et Cosette depuis leur entrée au couvent du Petit-Picpus. On assiste à l'éclosion de Cosette. À la remarque de la prieure du couvent, « Elle sera laide [ 5]  » répond l'observation de la servante Toussaint « Mademoiselle est jolie [ 6]  ». Grâce aux informations d'Éponine, l'idylle entre Cosette et Marius peut reprendre rue Plumet, initiée par une lettre d'amour (un cœur sous une pierre) et se poursuit jusqu'au départ précipité de Jean Valjean et Cosette pour la rue de l'Homme-Armé. Victor Hugo complète ensuite le personnage de Gavroche, gamin des rues, spontané et généreux, capable de gestes gratuits (la bourse volée à Montparnasse et donnée à Mabeuf, l'aide apportée à l'évasion de son père. On le découvre aussi paternel et responsable quand il recueille dans l' éléphant de la Bastille les deux gamins perdus dont il ignore être le frère. Tous les protagonistes de l'histoire, ou presque, convergent alors vers la barricade (fictive. 7] de la rue de la Chanvrerie [ 8] les amis de l'ABC par conviction révolutionnaire, Mabeuf et Marius par désespoir, Éponine par amour, Gavroche par curiosité, Javert pour espionner et Jean Valjean pour sauver Marius. Où vont-ils? Apparition au père Mabeuf. Éponine arrose le jardin de Mabeuf pour qu'il l'aide à retrouver Marius [ 9] Illustration de Pierre Georges Jeanniot (1890. Tome V: Jean Valjean Jean Valjean et Cosette après le mariage de celle-ci avec Marius (à l'arrière-plan. Illustration d' Émile Bayard. La cinquième partie est celle de la mort et de l'effacement. Mort des insurgés sur la barricade qui a commencé à la fin du tome précédent par celle d'Éponine et de M. Mabeuf et qui se poursuit par celle de Gavroche puis par l'anéantissement de la barricade. Jean Valjean se situe comme un ange protecteur: ses coups de feu ne tuent personne, il se propose pour exécuter Javert, mais lui permet de s'enfuir et sauve Marius au dernier instant de la barricade. Le sauvetage épique s'effectue par les égouts de Paris (l'intestin de Léviathan) que Victor Hugo décrit avec abondance. Échappant aux poursuites et à l'enlisement, Jean Valjean sort des égouts grâce à Thénardier, mais pour tomber dans les filets de Javert. Marius, sauvé, est reconduit chez son grand-père. On assiste ensuite au suicide de Javert et à l'effacement de Jean Valjean. Javert en effet relâche Jean Valjean alors qu'il le raccompagnait, en reconnaissance du fait que Jean Valjean l'avait sauvé lors de l'attaque de la barricade, mais ce faisant Javert ne supporte pas d'avoir manqué à son devoir de policier scrupuleux, devoir qui lui impose de ne pas relâcher un suspect pour raison personnelle, ce qu'il a néanmoins fait. Ne pouvant supporter ce grave manquement à son devoir, et d'avoir remis en cause le principe supérieur qu'est pour lui l'obéissance à la hiérarchie, il décide de mettre fin à ses jours en se jetant dans la Seine (chapitre Javert déraillé — titre d'avant-garde pour l'époque. L'idylle entre Marius et Cosette se concrétise par un mariage. Jean Valjean s'efface peu à peu de la vie du couple, encouragé par Marius qui voit en lui un malfaiteur et un assassin. Marius n'est détrompé par Thénardier que dans les dernières lignes du roman et, confus et reconnaissant, assiste avec Cosette aux derniers instants de Jean Valjean. Le roman Genèse Victor Hugo photographié par Gilbert Louis Radoux le 5 mai 1861. Préoccupé par l'adéquation entre la justice sociale et la dignité humaine, Victor Hugo a écrit en 1829 Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné, long monologue et réquisitoire contre la peine de mort. Il poursuit en 1834 avec Claude Gueux. En 1845, alors qu'il vient d'être fait pair de France par le roi Louis-Philippe I er, le peintre François-Auguste-Biard fait constater le flagrant délit dadultère de sa femme Léonie avec le poète. Léonie est emprisonnée pendant deux mois dans la prison Saint-Lazare puis envoyée au couvent des Augustines. C'est cet événement qui, selon Sainte-Beuve, conduit Victor Hugo à se retirer chez lui [ 10] et à entreprendre une grande fresque épique qu'il intitule d'abord Les Misères, ou Livre des Misères. 11] dans laquelle le personnage principal se nomme initialement « Jean Tréjean » [ 12. De cette même année 1845, daterait également l'unique trace écrite conservée de ce qui peut ressembler à l'architecture synthétique d'un projet: Histoire d'un saint Histoire d'un homme Histoire d'une femme Histoire d'une poupée [ 13. Il interrompt sa tâche en février 1848, mais écrit à la même époque son Discours sur la misère (1849. Durant son exil, après la rédaction des Contemplations (1856) et de La Légende des siècles (1859) il se remet à l'écriture des Misérables, à Guernesey en 1860. Sur son manuscrit, il écrit: « 14 février. Ici, le pair de France s'est interrompu, et le proscrit a continué: 30 décembre 1860. Guernesey [ 14.  » L'ouvrage est terminé et publié à partir de fin mars 1862 par l'éditeur Albert Lacroix, qui dispose d'un colossal budget de fabrication et de lancement, et qui fonde tous ses espoirs sur cet ouvrage [ 15. Inspiration Les Misérables est à la fois un roman d'inspiration réaliste, épique et romantique, un hymne à l'amour et un roman politique et social. Roman réaliste [ 16] Les Misérables décrit tout un univers de gens humbles. C'est une peinture très précise de la vie dans la France et le Paris pauvre au début du XIX e  siècle. Son succès populaire tient au trait parfois chargé avec lequel sont peints les personnages du roman. Roman épique, Les Misérables dépeint au moins trois grandes fresques: la bataille de Waterloo (qui représente pour l'auteur, la fin de l'épopée napoléonienne, et le début de l'ère bourgeoise; il s'aperçoit alors qu'il est républicain) l' émeute de Paris en juin 1832, la traversée des égouts de Paris par Jean Valjean. Mais le roman est aussi épique par la description des combats de l'âme: les combats de Jean Valjean entre le bien et le mal, son rachat jusqu'à son abnégation, le combat de Javert entre respect de la loi sociale et respect de la loi morale. Les Misérables est aussi un hymne à l'amour: amour chrétien sans concession de M gr Myriel qui, au début du roman, demande sa bénédiction au conventionnel G. (peut-être inspiré par l'abbé Grégoire [ 17. amours déçues de Fantine et Éponine; amour paternel de Jean Valjean pour Cosette; amour partagé de Marius et Cosette. Mais c'est aussi une page de la littérature française dédiée à la patrie. Au moment où il écrit ce livre, Victor Hugo est en exil. Aidé depuis la France par des amis qu'il charge de vérifier si tel coin de rue existe, il retranscrit dans ce roman la vision des lieux qu'il a aimés et dont il garde la nostalgie [ 18. Mais la motivation principale de Victor Hugo est le plaidoyer social. « Il y a un point où les infâmes et les infortunés se mêlent et se confondent dans un seul mot, mot fatal, les misérables; de qui est-ce la faute? » Selon Victor Hugo, c'est la faute de la misère, de l'indifférence et d'un système répressif sans pitié. Idéaliste, Victor Hugo est convaincu que l'instruction, l'accompagnement et le respect de l'individu sont les seules armes de la société qui peuvent empêcher l'infortuné de devenir infâme. Le roman engage une réflexion sur le problème du mal… Il se trouve que toute sa vie Hugo a été confronté à la peine de mort. Enfant, il a vu des corps pendus exhibés aux passants, plus tard, il a vu des exécutions à la guillotine. Un des thèmes du roman est donc « le crime de la loi ». Si l'œuvre montre comment les coercitions sociales et morales peuvent entraîner les hommes à leur déchéance si aucune solution de réédification n'est trouvée, c'est surtout un immense espoir en la générosité humaine dont Jean Valjean est l'archétype. Presque tous les autres personnages incarnent l' exploitation de l'homme par l'homme. L'exergue de Hugo est un appel à l'humanité pour qu'elle ne cesse d'œuvrer à des temps meilleurs: « Tant quil existera, par le fait des lois et des mœurs, une damnation sociale créant artificiellement, en pleine civilisation, des enfers, et compliquant dune fatalité humaine la destinée qui est divine; tant que les trois problèmes du siècle, la dégradation de lhomme par le prolétariat, la déchéance de la femme par la faim, latrophie de l'enfant par la nuit, ne seront pas résolus; tant que, dans de certaines régions, lasphyxie sociale sera possible; en dautres termes, et à un point de vue plus étendu encore, tant quil y aura sur la terre ignorance et misère, des livres de la nature de celui-ci pourront ne pas être inutiles. » —  Victor Hugo, Hauteville-House, 1862. Le choix du village de Montfermeil comme lieu de rencontre entre Cosette et Jean Valjean dans le roman remonte à 1845. Cette année là, pris en flagrant délit d'adultère, jeune pair de France, Victor Hugo est prié de s'éloigner quelque temps de Paris. Avec Juliette Drouet, il monte dans une diligence à Pantin qui prend la direction de Chelles, commune limitrophe de Montfermeil où il séjourne, dans l'auberge de l'ancienne abbaye. Son poème sur le moulin de Chelles, écrit lors de ce passage, se réfère au moulin de Montfermeil. En 1862, la publication du roman popularise la commune où situe l'auberge des Thénardier ( Au Sergent de Waterloo. 19. Influences Robert Laffont et Valentino Bompiani signalent, dans Le Nouveau Dictionnaire des œuvres de tous les temps, la présence dans Les Misérables de l'influence de Balzac ( La Comédie humaine) d' Eugène Sue ( Les Mystères de Paris) et des romans-feuilletons [ 20. L' intertextualité de l'œuvre de Balzac dans celle de Victor Hugo est en effet signalée par de nombreux analystes [ 21. 22. Victor Hugo fait explicitement allusion, à plusieurs reprises [ 23] dans son roman, à l'univers de Balzac, qui fut un contemporain avec lequel les échanges furent nombreux [ 24. On y reconnaît ainsi notamment celle du Curé de village avec lequel monseigneur Myriel présente des points communs [ 25. De même que la parenté entre Vautrin et Jean Valjean (le second étant l'envers positif de l'autre) est assez évidente, le monde et les coutumes des bagnards étant décrits dans Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes [ 26] l'étude intertextuelle des Misérables révèle que le forçat se nourrit également d'un autre personnage balzacien, Farrabesche [ 25. Selon Évelyne Pieiller [ 27] Les Mystères de Paris, roman-feuilleton à succès paru en 1842-1843, avec ses descriptions des bas-fonds parisiens, ouvre la voie à l'œuvre de Victor Hugo. Victor Hugo lui rend d'ailleurs hommage dans son roman [ 28] et poursuit sur la même route, s'attaquant à l'injustice sociale [ 27. Victor Hugo sest inspiré également de tout ce qu'il voyait et entendait autour de lui et quil notait dans ses carnets. Ainsi, le 22 février 1846, il raconte avoir vu un malheureux emmené par deux gendarmes après avoir été accusé du vol dun pain. « Cet homme, dit-il, nétait plus pour moi un homme, cétait le spectre de la misère. » Il s'agit probablement de l'inspiration du futur Jean Valjean [ 29. En décembre de la même année, il assiste à une altercation entre une vieille femme et un gamin qui peut faire penser à Gavroche [ 30. Quant à Fantine, elle pourrait lui avoir été inspiré par une « fille », comme lon disait à lépoque, dont il prit la défense un soir de janvier 1841 – au risque dentacher sa réputation – alors quelle avait été injustement accusée et traînée au poste de police avec la menace de passer six mois en prison [ 14. 31. Il sinforma également beaucoup en visitant la Conciergerie à Paris en 1846 et Waterloo. Le 20 mai 1861, il écrit à son fils François-Victor: « Je suis ici près de Waterloo. Je naurai quun mot à en dire dans mon livre, mais je veux que ce mot soit juste. Je suis donc venu étudier cette aventure sur le terrain, et confronter la légende avec la réalité. Ce que je dirai sera vrai. Ce ne sera sans doute que mon vrai à moi. Mais chacun ne peut donner que la réalité quil a [ 32.  » Il recueille des informations sur certaines industries, sur les salaires et le coût de la vie dans les classes populaires. Il demande à ses maîtresses Léonie dAunet et Juliette Drouet de le renseigner sur la vie des couvents [ 33. Les relations entre Victor Hugo et l'univers du roman-feuilleton sont plus conflictuelles. Il ne veut pas que Les Misérables soit édité en roman-feuilleton, comme cela était l'usage pour de nombreux romans populaires, car il est alors en conflit avec le pouvoir en place et condamne la censure de la presse par le pouvoir. Il exige cependant que son œuvre soit publiée dans un format bon marché pour rester accessible. D'autre part, il trouve le style des romans-feuilletons souvent peu travaillé [ 34. Les Misérables parait toutefois en feuilleton dans Le Rappel en 1888 [ 35. Enfin, homme de son temps, écrivant une histoire contemporaine, Victor Hugo s'inspire des figures de son époque pour camper ses personnages. Les Mémoires de Vidocq, parues en 1828, qui inspirèrent à Balzac le personnage de Vautrin, semblent se retrouver en partie dans les deux personnages antagonistes que sont Jean Valjean et Javert. Le premier correspondrait à Vidocq l'ancien forçat et le second à Vidocq, chef de sûreté de la préfecture de Police; c'est, du moins, une observation faite par de nombreuses études [ 36. 37. 38. Cependant, Victor Hugo ne reconnaîtra jamais l'influence de Vidocq sur la création de ces personnages [ 39. Il samuse également à glisser des allusions toutes personnelles. Ainsi, en est-il pour ses maîtresses: Juliette Drouet inspire le nom de la « mère des Anges (Mlle Drouet) qui avait été au couvent des Filles-Dieu » (Deuxième partie, livre VI, chapitre VII) la clairière Blaru (Cinquième partie, livre V, chapitre IV) rappelle le pseudonyme Thérèse de Blaru dont Léonie dAunet signait ses livres. Plus intime encore, la date du 16 février 1833, nuit de noces de Cosette et Marius (Cinquième partie, livre VI, chapitre I) fut aussi celle où Juliette se donna à Victor pour la première fois. Réception Les deux premiers tomes des Misérables sont publiés en 1862: la première partie est publiée le 30 mars à Bruxelles par les Éditions Albert Lacroix, Verboeckhoven et Cie, et le 3 avril de la même année à Paris [ 40] à grand renfort de publicité, extraits de morceaux choisis dans les journaux et critiques élogieuses [ 41. Les parties deux et trois paraissent le 15 mai 1862, les parties quatre et cinq sortent le 30 juin. À cette époque, Victor Hugo est considéré comme un des premiers hommes de lettres français de son siècle et le public se précipite pour lire son nouveau roman. Les réactions sont diverses. Certains le jugent immoral, d'autres trop sentimental, d'autres encore trop complaisant avec les révolutionnaires [ 42. Sainte-Beuve se lamente: « Le goût du public est décidément bien malade. Le succès des Misérables a sévi et continue de sévir au-delà de tout ce quon pouvait craindre. » Toutefois, il concède que « son roman […] est tout ce quon voudra, en bien, en mal, en absurdités; mais Hugo, absent et exilé depuis 11 ans, a fait acte de présence, de force et de jeunesse. Ce seul fait est un grand succès. » Il reconnaît enfin à Hugo cette qualité suprême: « Ce quil invente de faux et même dabsurde, il le fait être et paraître à tous les yeux [ 43.  » Les frères Goncourt expriment leur profonde déception, jugeant le roman très artificiel et très décevant [ 44. 45. Flaubert n'y trouve « ni vérité ni grandeur [ 46]  ». Baudelaire fait publier une critique très élogieuse [ 47] de la première partie dans un journal (louant tout particulièrement le chapitre « Tempête sous un crâne ») mais dans une lettre à sa mère, il qualifiera Les Misérables de « livre immonde et inepte » [ 48. Lamartine en condamne les impuretés de langue, le cynisme de la démagogie: «  Les Misérables sont un sublime talent, une honnête intention et un livre très dangereux de deux manières: non seulement parce qu'il fait trop craindre aux heureux, mais parce qu'il fait trop espérer aux malheureux » [ 49. Cette crainte est partagée par Barbey d'Aurevilly qui stigmatise le « livre le plus dangereux de son temps » [ 50. Dans une lettre à son fils de juillet 1862, Dumas père regrette que ce livre soit « tout à la fois une œuvre ennuyeuse, mal rêvée dans son plan, mal venue dans son résultat », ajoutant: « Chaque volume commence par une montagne et finit par une souris [ 51.  » Lévêque Louis-Gaston de Ségur rédige une critique sur Victor Hugo et « son infâme livre des misérables [qui] lui a rapporté dun coup cinq cent mille francs. » En décembre 1872 lauteur ne manquera pas de lui adresser une réponse au vitriol [ 52. Les Goncourt notent que le livre a été « une grande déception. » Ils expliquent: « Titre injustifié: point la misère, pas dhôpital, prostituée effleurée. Rien de vivant: les personnages sont en bronze, en albâtre, en tout, sauf en chair et en os. Le manque dobservation éclate et blesse partout. » Et puis, ajoutent-ils, il est « assez amusant de gagner deux cent mille francs […] à sapitoyer sur les misères du peuple! » [ 53] Le livre connaît cependant un grand succès populaire. Traduit dès l'année de sa parution, grâce aux efforts d' Albert Lacroix qui ouvre des filiales en Europe, en plusieurs langues (italien, grec, portugais) il reçoit dans chaque pays où il est publié, de la part des lecteurs, un accueil triomphal [ 54. 55. Impatient de connaître la première réaction des lecteurs anglais à la sortie du livre, Victor Hugo envoya à ses éditeurs Hurst & Blackett un télégramme dont le contenu se résumait à «? ». La réponse de ses correspondants fut non moins laconique: «! » [ 56. 57. L'auteur lui-même accorde une grande importance à ce roman. En juin 1861, il informe son fils François-Victor qu'il a terminé l'ouvrage et affirme: « Je peux mourir. » [ 58] Il écrit en mars 1862, à son éditeur Lacroix: « Ma conviction est que ce livre sera un des principaux sommets, sinon le principal, de mon œuvre » [ 59. Utilisation du langage populaire D'après Pascal Melka (« Victor Hugo, un combat pour les opprimés. Étude de son évolution politique » [ 60. dans Les Misérables, Victor Hugo a fait revenir le langage populaire dans la littérature. Il emploie l'argot et va jusqu'à consacrer un chapitre à philosopher sur le mot de Cambronne, « le plus beau mot peut-être quun Français ait jamais dit ». Tout ceci faisait naturellement scandale dans l'opinion classique. Voici comment Victor Hugo se justifie: « Lorsquil s'agit de sonder une plaie, un gouffre ou une société, depuis quand est-ce un tort de descendre trop avant, daller au fond? Nous avions toujours pensé que cétait quelquefois un acte de courage, et tout au moins une action simple et utile, digne de lattention sympathique que mérite le devoir accepté et accompli. Ne pas tout explorer, ne pas tout étudier, sarrêter en chemin, pourquoi? » Personnages Le roman fourmille de personnages. Nombre d'entre eux font une courte apparition et retournent dans l'oubli. C'est une volonté délibérée de Victor Hugo: il cherche à démontrer que la misère est anonyme [ 61. Cet oubli est particulièrement prégnant dans le cas de la sœur de Jean Valjean et ses sept enfants: « Cest toujours la même histoire. Ces pauvres êtres vivants, ces créatures de Dieu, sans appui désormais, sans guide, sans asile, sen allèrent au hasard, qui sait même? chacun de leur côté peut-être, et senfoncèrent peu à peu dans cette froide brume où sengloutissent les destinées solitaires, mornes ténèbres où disparaissent successivement tant de têtes infortunées dans la sombre marche du genre humain. Ils quittèrent le pays. Le clocher de ce qui avait été leur village les oublia; la borne de ce qui avait été leur champ les oublia; après quelques années de séjour au bagne, Jean Valjean lui-même les oublia. » — Victor Hugo, Les Misérables, tome I, livre 2, chapitre 6 Parmi les nombreux personnages que l'on voit apparaître et disparaître, on peut encore citer le Petit-Gervais, Azelma, les frères de Gavroche, M me Magloire, M lle Baptistine. Il reste cependant un nombre restreint de personnages dont les destins se croisent et qui font partie du cœur de l'action: Jean Valjean Javert Fantine Cosette Marius Les Thénardier Gavroche Éponine Enjolras En périphérie, Victor Hugo s'attache à certaines autres figures jusqu'à leur consacrer un livre ou plusieurs chapitres. Ces personnages lui servent d'argumentaires pour son plaidoyer ou d'articulation pour son roman. Monseigneur Myriel: Victor Hugo commence [ 62] et termine [ 63] le roman sur l'évocation de monseigneur Myriel. Il lui consacre tout le premier livre (« Un juste ». Pour Hugo, il incarne la charité chrétienne et c'est lui le déclencheur de la conversion de Jean Valjean (épisode des deux chandeliers. Évêque de Digne, nommé — respectueusement et amicalement à la fois — par ses paroissiens monseigneur Bienvenu (c'est-à-dire réunissant son titre et son troisième prénom) il est attentif au bien être des plus misérables et échange même son évêché contre l'hôpital qu'il juge trop petit. Mais M gr Myriel ne serait pas complet sans sa rencontre avec le conventionnel G [ 64. Pour Victor Hugo la sainteté de l'homme de Dieu a besoin de l'éclairage de la révolution pour que sa charité devienne œuvre sociale. Père Fauchelevent: paysan aisé, il est petit à petit ruiné et devient charretier. Il voue une haine jalouse envers M. Madeleine jusqu'au jour où celui-ci le sauve de l'écrasement par sa charrette. Resté handicapé à la suite de son accident, il trouve grâce à M. Madeleine un emploi de jardinier au couvent du Petit-Picpus à Paris. Reconnaissant, il offre plus tard un abri et un nom d'emprunt à Jean Valjean et Cosette. M. Luc Esprit Gillenormand: seul grand bourgeois du roman dont la personnalité et la vie sont aussi détaillées. Victor Hugo lui consacre tout un livre, c'est pour lui l'occasion de décrire la Restauration et les Ultras. Le grand-père de Marius, aimant tendrement son petit-fils, mais royaliste acharné, se comporte de manière abominable envers son gendre bonapartiste en le privant de son fils. Homme d'esprit et homme du monde, il conserve une certaine élégance. M. Mabeuf, marguillier: c'est lui qui révèle à Marius quel homme était son père. Passionné de livres et pépiniériste amateur, il est l'auteur d'une flore. Homme doux, ruiné par la faillite de son notaire, il sombre petit à petit dans la misère. Réduit à vendre le dernier exemplaire de son traité sur la flore, il suit les insurgés, dans un état second, et devient le premier martyr de la barricade. Montparnasse: jeune malfrat de 19 ans, au coup de couteau facile, il est l'un des devenirs possibles des gamins comme Gavroche. Jean Valjean essaiera en vain par un sermon de lui faire réintégrer le droit chemin. Tholomyès: riche et « antique étudiant vieux » du Quartier latin, noceur et insouciant. Il a une relation amoureuse avec Fantine, mais l'abandonne, alors qu'elle est enceinte de Cosette, à la suite dun pari stupide fait avec ses comparses. Éditions Le manuscrit de Victor Hugo peut être consulté dans Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France. L'édition originale est en partie disponible dans Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France. Une édition de référence est celle établie par Maurice Allem pour la Bibliothèque de la Pléiade en un seul tome. L'appareil critique est important (notice bibliographique, variantes, notes sur le texte, etc. Il existe aussi une édition sonore, chez les éditions Thélème, lue par Michel Vuillermoz, Elodie Huber, Pierre-François Garel, Louis Arène et Mathurin Voltz. Ressources bibliographiques Annette Rosa, Présentation des Misérables - Œuvres complètes/Victor Hugo. II Hubert de Phalèse, Dictionnaire des Misérables, Éditeur Nizet ( ISBN   978-2-7078-1185-1) Le Groupe Hugo met en ligne de nombreux documents et études sur Les Misérables, notamment: Édition des Misérables selon trois états de l'œuvre qui peuvent se lire sous la forme d'un tableau synoptique Édition des Misérables Bibliographie sur Les Misérables Guy Rosa, Histoire sociale et roman de la misère Les Carnets des Misérables Thomas Bouchet, Les 5 et 6 juin 1832, l'événement et Les Misérables Nicole Savy, Les procédures de réalisation: l'exemple du Petit-Picpus des Misérables Collectif, Lire Les Misérables Richard Hendriks, Adapter Les Misérables (Mémoire - 2006) Sabine Chalvon-Demersay, Adaptations télévisuelles et figures temporelles, Les sept visages des Misérables, Réseaux, 132, 2005. Pierre Malandain, «  La réception des Misérables ou « Un lieu où des convictions sont en train de se former »  », Revue d'histoire littéraire de la France, Paris, Armand Colin, n o  6 ( 86 e année) « Victor Hugo », ‎ novembre-décembre 1986, p.  1065-1079 ( lire en ligne. Adaptations Cinéma 1907: On the Barricade, d' Alice Guy Blaché, adaptation d'une partie du roman 1907: Le Chemineau 1909: Les Misérables, de J. Stuart Blackton 1912: Les Misérables, d' Albert Capellani [ 65] 1913: Les Misérables ( The Bishop's Candelsticks) de Herbert Brenon, adaptation du Tome I. Livre II 1917: Les Misérables, de Frank Lloyd 1922: Les Misérables 1923: Les Misérables ( Aa mujo) de Kiyohiko Ushihara et Yoshinobu Ikeda 1925: Les Misérables, d' Henri Fescourt (6 heures) avec Gabriel Gabrio 1929: Les Misérables ( The Bishop's Candlesticks) de Norman McKinnell, première adaptation sonore 1929: Les Misérables ( Aa mujo) de Seika Shiba 1931: Jean Valjean, de Tomu Uchida 1934: Les Misérables, de Raymond Bernard, avec: Harry Baur (Jean Valjean) Charles Vanel (Javert) Florelle (Fantine) Josseline Gael (Cosette) Jean Servais (Marius) Orane Demazis (Éponine) Charles Dullin (Thénardier) Marguerite Moreno ( M me Thénardier) 4 h 25 min) 1935: Les Misérables, de Richard Boleslawski, avec: Fredric March (Jean Valjean) Charles Laughton (Javert) Rochelle Hudson (Cosette) Florence Eldridge (Fantine) Frances Drake (Éponine) John Beal (Marius) Ferdinand Gottschalk (Thénardier) Jane Kerr ( M me Thénardier) 1 h 49 min) 1937: Gavroche ( Gavrosh) de Tatyana Lukashevich 1938: La Légende du géant ( Kyojin-den) de Mansaku Itami 1943: Les Misérables ( Los Miserables) film mexicain de Fernando A. Rovero 1944: Les Misérables ( El Boassa) film arabe de Kamal Selim 1948: Les Misérables ou L'Évadé du bagne ( I miserabili) de Riccardo Freda, avec: Gino Cervi (Jean Valjean) Valentina Cortese (Cosette / Fantine) Hans Hinrich (Javert) Aldo Nicodemi (Marius) 1949: Les Nouveaux Misérables, d' Henri Verneuil 1950: Anges et démons ( Re Mizeraburu: Kami to Akuma) de Daisuke Ito 1950: Les Misérables ( Ezai Padum Pado) de K. Ramnoth 1952: Les Misérables ( La Vie de Jean Valjean) de Lewis Milestone, avec: Michael Rennie (Jean Valjean) Debra Paget (Cosette) Sylvia Sidney (Fantine) Robert Newton (Javert) Cameron Mitchell (Marius) 1952: Les Misérables ( I miserabilli) réédition du film de 1948 1955: Les Misérables ( Kundan) de Sohrab Modi 1958: Les Misérables, de Jean-Paul Le Chanois, avec: Jean Gabin (Jean Valjean) Bernard Blier (Javert) Danièle Delorme (Fantine) Béatrice Altariba (Cosette) Bourvil (Thénardier) Giani Esposito (Marius) Silvia Monfort (Éponine) Elfriede Florin (La Thénardier) 3 h) 1961: Jean Valjean (film, 1961) de Seung-ha Jo 1967: Les Misérables ( Sefiller) film turc de Zafer Davutoglu 1978: Les Misérables, téléfilm de Glenn Jordan avec: Richard Jordan (Jean Valjean) Anthony Perkins (Javert) Caroline Langrishe (Cosette) Angela Pleasence (Fantine) Christopher Guard (Marius) Ian Holm (Thénardier) 1978: Les Misérables ( Al boasa) 1982: Les Misérables, de Robert Hossein, avec: Lino Ventura (Jean Valjean) Michel Bouquet (Javert) Jean Carmet (Thénardier) Evelyne Bouix (Fantine) Christiane Jean (Cosette) Frank David (Marius) Françoise Seigner ( M me Thénardier) Candice Patou (Éponine) — À noter l'existence d'une version plus longue de 30 minutes, scindée en quatre parties, présentée à la télévision en 1985. 1995: Les Misérables, de Claude Lelouch, avec: Jean-Paul Belmondo (Jean Valjean) Philippe Khorsand (Javert) Michel Boujenah (André Ziman) Alessandra Martines (Madame Ziman) Ticky Holgado (L'Addition) Annie Girardot (Madame Thénardier) Philippe Léotard (Thénardier) Jean Marais: L'évêque (1942. Monseigneur Myriel, Salomé Lelouch (Salomé Ziman) 1998: Les Misérables, de Bille August, avec: Liam Neeson (Jean Valjean) Geoffrey Rush (Javert) Claire Danes (Cosette) Uma Thurman (Fantine) Hans Matheson (Marius) 2012: Les Misérables, de Tom Hooper, avec: Hugh Jackman ( Jean Valjean) Russell Crowe ( Javert) Sacha Baron Cohen ( Thénardier) Helena Bonham Carter ( M me Thénardier) Anne Hathaway ( Fantine) Amanda Seyfried ( Cosette) Eddie Redmayne ( Marius) Samantha Barks ( Éponine) Aaron Tveit ( Enjolras) Télévision 1958: Os Miseráveis de Dionísio Azevedo 1961: Cosette d' Alain Boudet, Le Théâtre de la jeunesse de Claude Santelli 1962: Gavroche d' Alain Boudet, Le Théâtre de la jeunesse de Claude Santelli 1963: Jean Valjean d' Alain Boudet, Le Théâtre de la jeunesse de Claude Santelli 1967: Les Misérables, feuilleton télévisé britannique en 10 épisodes 1967: Os Miseráveis de Walter Negrao 1972: Les Misérables, de Marcel Bluwal, avec: Georges Géret (Jean Valjean) Bernard Fresson (Javert) Nicole Jamet (Cosette) Anne-Marie Coffinet (Fantine) François Marthouret (Marius) Hermine Karagheuz (Éponine) Alain Mottet (Thénardier) Micha Bayard ( M me Thénardier) Gilles Maidon (Gavroche) Jean-Luc Boutté (Enjolras) 1973: Los Miserables, de Antulio Jiménez Pons   (es) 1978: Les Misérables, de Glenn Jordan 1982: Les Misérables, par Robert Hossein (voir à ce sujet la section cinéma) 2000: Les Misérables, de Josée Dayan, avec: Gérard Depardieu (Jean Valjean) John Malkovich (Javert) Virginie Ledoyen (Cosette) Charlotte Gainsbourg (Fantine) Christian Clavier (Thénardier) Jeanne Moreau (Mère Innocente) Veronica Ferres ( M me Thénardier) Asia Argento (Éponine) Enrico Lo Verso (Marius) Steffen Wink (Enjolras) Jérôme Hardelay (Gavroche) 2014 - 2015: Los miserables, telenovela de Telemundo en 119 épisodes, s'inspirant librement du roman 2018: Les Misérables   (en) mini-série de Tom Shankland   (en) en six épisodes « Le ton est parfois grandiloquent, le trait un chouïa caricatural et la tentation de verser dans le mélo jamais très loin. Et on ne vous parle pas de lenvahissante bande sonore de John Murphy, qui veut absolument dicter nos émotions… Au bout du compte, quapporte cette nouvelle version? Une distribution placée sous le signe de la diversité culturelle, laquelle confirme que le petit écran évolue lentement mais sûrement. » ( Manon Dumais, Le Devoir, 13 avril 2019) Dessins animés 1977: Cosette 1979: Jean Valjean Monogatari ( L'Histoire de Jean Valjean) téléfilm d'animation de Takashi Kuoka 1981: Les Misérables, téléfilm d'animation 1988: Les Misérables, téléfilm d'animation 1992: Les Misérables, série télévisée d'animation en 26 épisodes 2007: Les Misérables: Shôjo Cosette, série télévisée d'animation en 52 épisodes (Nippon animation. Comédie musicale 1980: Les Misérables, musique de Claude-Michel Schönberg et livret d' Alain Boublil /Jean-Marc Natel, création sur scène au Palais des sports de Paris dans une mise en scène de Robert Hossein: Version anglaise avec un livret signé Herbert Kretzmer créée à la scène londonienne en 1985. Depuis 1991, la version anglaise a été remaniée plusieurs fois et présentée sans discontinuité sur la scène internationale, atteignant ainsi le record de représentations pour ce genre de spectacle. Discographie 1967: Les Misérables, raconté par François Perrier avec Georges Wilson dans le rôle de Jean Valjean, disque 33 tours, Le Petit Ménestrel Son et lumière 1996: Les Misérables à Montreuil-sur-Mer, un spectacle imaginé et mis en scène par Dominique Martens sur une musique originale de Dominic Laprise avec des chorégraphies et danses originales de Brigitte Bouyer. Dans la ville même où se déroule la première partie du roman, le spectacle fête sa 20 e édition en 2015 [ 67. Théâtre 1976: Les Misérables de Paul Achard d'après Victor Hugo, mise en scène Jean Meyer, Théâtre des Célestins avec Jean Marais, Jean Meyer, Fernand Ledoux 1999: Les Misérables, scénographie et mise en scène de Denis Llorca, dramaturgie de Philippe Vialèles, musique de Pascal Berthier, coproduction La Compagnie du Quartz (Paris) L'Étoile de l'Aube ( Saint-Thomé) Les Trétaux de France Jean-Danet, avec Denis Llorca (Jean Valjean) Jean-Paul Zehnacker (Javert. Arènes de Lutèce, tournée [ 68. 2002: Les Misérables, adaptation de Stephen Shank et Patrick de Longrée, mise en scène de Stephen Shank. Abbaye de Villers-la-Ville, dans le cadre de l' été théâtral de Villers-la-Ville. 2006: Misérables! adaptation par la Compagnie Annibal et ses Éléphants, spectacle de rue [ 69. 2012: Les Misérables, adaptation et mise en scène de Manon Montel, compagnie Chouchenko. Vingtième Théâtre, Paris. Reprise en 2014 et 2015. 2017: Les Misérables, adaptation et mise en scène de Manon Montel, compagnie Chouchenko. Lucernaire, Paris [ 70. 2018: Les Misérables, adaptation de Stephen Shank et Patrick de Longrée, mise en scène de Jacques Neefs. Citadelle de Namur [ 71. 2018: Les Misérables, adaptation et mise en scène Eric Devanthéry. Théâtre Pitoëff, Genève [ 72. Parodies Les Miséroïdes des Inconnus, fausse bande-annonce d'une adaptation du roman avec Jean-Claude Van Damme dans le rôle de Jean Valjean, se moquant de la violence et de la surabondance de clichés dans le cinéma nord-américain. Réécritures François Cérésa a donné en 2001 une suite controversée aux Misérables, avec deux livres intitulés Cosette ou le temps des illusions et Marius ou le fugitif. Des descendants de Victor Hugo ont attaqué l'auteur en la justice, mais ont finalement été déboutés [ 73. Marie-Hélène Sabard (Classiques abrégés) a écrit un résumé des Misérables. Le roman a été adapté en bande dessinée par deux fois: une première fois sous le titre Le Mystère des chandeliers, parue en France en 1991. Les personnages du roman y sont incarnés par les personnages traditionnels de La Bande à Picsou: on retrouve ainsi Picsou renommé Picaljean et Donald Pontmercy représentant Marius. Thénardier est représenté par Pat Hibulaire, Cosette est d'abord Zaza (jeune) puis Daisy (dix ans après) et Gavroche et ses frères apparaissent sous les traits de Riri, Fifi et Loulou; une seconde fois sous le titre original. Parue en 2006 aux éditions Glénat, les dessins sont de Bernard Capo, le scénario de Daniel Bardet et les couleurs d'Arnaud Boutle. Jeux vidéo 2008: Arm Joe 2013: Les Misérables: Le destin de Cosette [ 74] Mangas 2013: Les Misérables, manga de Takahiro Arai aux éditions Kurokawa (8 tomes. 2014: Les Misérables, une adaptation en manga (en langue anglaise) par les éditions Udon et dans la collection Manga Classics (une collection adaptant les classiques de la littérature en manga. Liens externes Versions gratuites de lœuvre Les Misérables, en version audio gratuite Les Misérables en feuilleton radiophonique à compter du 24 décembre 2012: France Culture fête le 150 e anniversaire de la publication du roman en le racontant en 14 épisodes de 23 minutes, avec Jean-Marie Winling (Jean Valjean) Philippe Magnan (narrateur) Vincent Schmitt (Javert) Hervé Furic (Thénardier) Julie-Marie Parmentier (Fantine) etc. Rediffusion quotidienne à compter du lundi 20 janvier 2014 à 20  h  30 (en hommage au réalisateur François Christophe) Fictions/Le Feuilleton, écoute en ligne Les Misérables, manuscrit autographe sur Gallica: 1 re partie, NAF 13379 2 e partie, NAF 13380 Les Misérables,   éd. originale de 1862 sur Gallica: 1 re partie Fantine I; 1 re partie Fantine II; 2 e partie Cosette I; 2 e partie Cosette II; 3 e partie Marius I; 3 e partie Marius II; 4 e partie L'idylle rue Plumet et l'épopée rue Saint-Denis I; 4 e partie L'idylle rue Plumet et l'épopée rue Saint-Denis II; 5 e partie Jean Valjean I; 5 e partie Jean Valjean II. Liens utiles Les films Les Misérables sur l' IMDb. Les Misérables décrit par la Bibliothèque nationale de France. Notes et références ↑ Présentation d'Annette Rosa du roman Les Misérables, Œuvres complètes/Victor Hugo. II ↑ Tome III. Marius — Livre VIII. Le mauvais pauvre — Chapitre 20. Le guet-apens. ↑ « Ce tableau d'histoire agrandit l'horizon et fait partie essentielle du drame; il est comme le cœur du sujet » — Lettre du V Hugo le 8 mai 1862 à son éditeur Lacroix voir ↑ Tome IV. L'idylle rue Plumet et l'épopée rue Saint-Denis — Livre IX. Où vont-ils? Livre X. Le 5 juin 1832/Livre XI. L'atome fraternise avec l'ouragan. ↑ Les Misérables - Tome II - Livre VIII - Chap. 8 ↑ Tome IV - Livre III - Chap. 5 ↑ Thomas Bouchet, « La barricade des Misérables  », dans Alain Corbin et Jean-Marie Mayeur (dir. La barricade: actes du colloque organisé les 17, 18 et 19 mai 1995 par le Centre de recherches en histoire du XIX e  siècle et la Société d'histoire de la révolution de 1848 et des révolutions du XIX e  siècle, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, coll.  « Histoire de la France aux XIX e et XX e  siècles », 1997, 522  p. ISBN   2-85944-318-5, lire en ligne) p.  125-135. ↑ (Tome IV. Où vont-ils? ↑ Tome IV. L'idylle rue Plumet et l'épopée rue Saint-Denis — Livre II. Éponine — Chapitre 3. Apparition au père Mabeuf. ↑ Jean-Marc Hovasse, « 1862: Les Misérables » émission La Marche de l'histoire sur France Inter, 15 février 2012 ↑ Victor Hugo poésie 3 - l'Intégrale/Seuil ↑ Notice de l'édition critique, génétique, informatisée et interrogeable des Misérables de Victor Hugo sur le site du Groupe Hugo ↑ Victor Hugo, Les Misérables, Paris, Robert Laffont, 1985, 1270  p. ISBN   978-2221046890) p. 1161 ↑ a et b Victor Hugo, Les Misérables, Paris, Gallimard, Notices et notes de G. et A. Rosa, 1985, 1270  p. ISBN   2-221-04689-7) pp. IV, 1212 ↑ Il aurait un budget de 240 000 francs-or, somme considérable à cette époque, d'après Jean-Yves Mollier, dans Dictionnaire encyclopédique du livre, Paris, Cercle de la librairie, 2005, tome II, p.  675. ↑ Les Misérables: histoire sociale et roman de la misère — Guy Rosa — Groupe Hugo ↑ On cite, comme modèle pour ce personnage, l'abbé Grégoire (Maurice Ezran, L'Abbé Grégoire, défenseur des Juifs et des Noirs: révolution et tolérance p.  64) ou Sergent-Marceau ( Les Misérables - Fantine p.  61 note 21 ou bien Yves Gohin, Les Misérables, p.  580) arguant du fait que, dans un premier temps, Victor Hugo parlait du conventionnel S. ↑ Les Misérables, tome II, livre 5, chap.  I. ↑ Site, article "Sur les traces de Victor Hugo à Chelles et à Montfermeil" consulté le 7 février 2020 ↑ « Il est certain que Hugo a subi, au début de son roman, l'influence de Balzac: la description du personnage et des habitudes de monseigneur Myriel, celle de monsieur Gillenormand, à quelques outrances près, par sa précision, son souci de n'omettre aucun détail vivant, pourrait presque prendre place dans La Comédie humaine. Non moins grande est l'influence exercée sur Hugo par les romans-feuilletons qui venaient de faire connaître à leurs auteurs une popularité sans précédent: Les Mémoires du diable de Frédéric Soulié, parus en 1841, et Les Mystères de Paris d'Eugène Sue parus en 1842 » — Analyse des Misérables dans Laffont-Bompiani, Dictionnaire des œuvres, Paris, 1990, t.  IV, p.  581 ( ISBN   2221501187. ↑ Pierre Laforgue, Hugo lecteur de Balzac, site du groupe Hugo. ↑ Nicolas Banasevic, « Les Échos balzaciens dans Les Misérables, centenaire des Misérables, 1862-1962 », Hommage à Victor Hugo, colloque de Strasbourg organisé par le Centre de philologie et de littératures romanes. ↑ « Paris étudié dans son atome », livre I, tome III; « L'argot », livre VII, tome IV ↑ Cultures France, Hugo-Balzac, in Victor Hugo et ses contemporains. ↑ a et b Nathalie Limat-Letellier, Marie Miguet-Ollagnier L'intertextualité, Presses univ. Franche-Comté, 1998, page 198 ( ISBN   2251606378. ↑ Laffont-Bompiani, « Les Misérables » in Dictionnaire des œuvres. [source insuffisante] ↑ a et b Évelyne Pieiller, «  Les Misérables, Les Trois Mousquetaires, Cyrano de Bergerac, Pérennité du roman populaire  », Le Monde diplomatique, juin 2002. ↑ « L'argot », livre VII, tome IV ↑ Victor Hugo, Choses vues 1830-1846, Paris, Gallimard, 1972, 508  p. ISBN   2-07-036011-3) p.  333, 334 ↑ Cela est confirmé, précise Hubert Juin, par une note de Hugo en regard du texte des carnets intimes: « Jean Tréjean », qui est le titre quil envisageait de donner aux Misérables. ↑ Victor Hugo, Choses vues 1830-1846, Paris, Gallimard, 1972, 508  p. ISBN   2-07-036011-3) pp. 204-208 ↑ «  Correspondance de Victor Hugo  », sur Wikisource (consulté le 19 avril 2017) ↑ Victor Hugo, Les Misérables, Paris, Robert Laffont, 1985, 1270  p. ISBN   2-221-04689-7) Présentation de Annette Rosa, ↑ Les mystères de Paris et les premiers romans-feuilletons sur Terres d'écrivains. ↑ Le Rappel ( lire en ligne) ↑ Claude Frochaux, L'Homme seul, partie II, p.  185. ↑ « Critique de Vidocq » sur Comme au ↑ Sylvie Thorel-Cailleteau, Splendeur dans la médiocrité: une idée du roman, p.  139-140 ↑ (en) Sarah Margareth Ross, The Evolution of the Theme of Criminality From Balzac, To Hugo, To Zola, p.  18. ↑ Bernard Leuilliot ( préf.   Jean Gaulmier) Victor Hugo publie Les Misérables: Correspondance avec Albert Lacroix août 1861 - juillet 1862, Paris, Klincksieck, avril 1970, 426  p. (notice BnF n o   FRBNF35289733) p.  62, 235, 236, 241 Ouvrage publié avec le concours du CNRS. Extrait de la lettre du 3 avril 1862 adressée par Albert Lacroix à Victor Hugo: « Grand jour! Triomphe éclatant! Enthousiasme complet! …] Partout à Paris, il est question de vous — Tous les journaux ont lancé avec éclat Les Misérables. Les extraits ont été d'un effet énorme. — La vente est réellement pleine d'entrain. » ↑ Max Bach, « La Réception des Misérables en 1862 », PMLA, vol.  77, n o 5, décembre 1962. ↑ L. Gautier écrit dans Le Monde (Paris, 1860) du 17 août 1862: « On ne peut lire sans un dégoût invincible, tous les détails que donne M. Hugo de cette savante préparation des émeutes » (voir) ↑ Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Mes poisons, Paris, José Corti, 1988, 274  p. ISBN   9782714302731) p. 61 ↑ Publications et écrit - Cultures France [lien mort. ↑ E. et J. de Goncourt, Journal, Paris, Robert Laffont, 1989, 1218  p. ISBN   2-221-05527-6) Avril 1862, p. 808 ↑ Lettre de G. Flaubert à madame Roger des Genette, juillet 1862 (voir. ↑ «  Les Misérables de Victor Hugo par Charles Baudelaire » dans le journal Le Boulevard (1862. ↑ Lettre à M me Aupick, Paris, 10 août 1862. ↑ Cultures France, Hugo-Lamartine, in « Victor Hugo et ses contemporains ». ↑ Michel Winock, Les Voix de la Liberté, Seuil 2001, p.  411 ↑ «  Victor Hugo, l'ami capital  », sur Alexandre Dumas, deux siècles de littérature vivante - La Société des Amis d'Alexandre Dumas (consulté le 5 mars 2017) ↑ «  Correspondance de Victor Hugo/1872  », sur Wikisource, 2007 (consulté le 5 mars 2017) ↑ Edmond et Jules de Goncourt, Journal, Tome I, Paris, Robert Laffont, 1989, 1218  p. ISBN   978-2221055274) p. 808 ↑ Réception des Misérables en Grèce par Marguerite Yourcenar. ↑ Réception des Misérables au Portugal ↑ (en) William S. Walsh, Handy-Book of Literary Curiosities, Philadelphie, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1892 ( lire en ligne) p. 600 ↑ Encyclopaedia Britannica, ↑ Victor Hugo, Les Misérables, Présentation Annette Rosa, Paris, Robert Laffont, 1982, 1270  p. ISBN   2-221-04689-7) p. 1165 ↑ Lettre du 23 mars 1862 de V. Hugo à son éditeur Lacroix (voir) ↑ «  Victor Hugo un combat pour les opprimés  » (consulté le 29 décembre 2014) ↑ Annette Rosa — Présentation des Misérables — Œuvres complètes/Victor Hugo. II ↑ « En 1815, M. Charles-François-Bienvenu Myriel était évêque de Digne. » – Les Misérables, Tome I, Livre 1, Chap I ↑ « Il est probable en effet que l'évêque assistait à cette agonie. » – Les Misérables, Tome V, Livre 9, Chap. VI ↑ L'évêque en présence d'une lumière inconnue — Tome I — Livre 1 — Chap. 10 ↑ On trouve pour la date de production de ce film plusieurs versions de 1911( Bibliolycée - Les Misérables, Victor Hugo de Charlotte Lerouge] à 1913 ( Écrits autobiographiques, par Charles Pathé) en passant par 1912 ( Encyclopedia of Early Cinema de Richard Abel) ↑ Site officiel Atelier Colom ↑ Site officiel Les Misérables à Montreuil-sur-Mer ↑ Source: programme Festival Théâtre Musique et Danse dans la Ville 1999, Paris. ↑ «  La Defense Tour Circus. Festival des Arts de la Rue. La Defense. 09 2014. Miserables  », sur (consulté le 11 novembre 2017) ↑ «  Programmation Théâtre du Lucernaire  » ↑ «  Les Misérables — Ville de Namur  » ↑ «  Les Misérables  », sur (consulté le 11 septembre 2018) ↑ «  La justice donne raison à l'auteur d'une suite des "Misérables"  », sur, 19 décembre 2008 (consulté le 29 décembre 2014) ↑ «  Sauvez Cosette des griffes des Thenardier dans Les Misérables - Le destin de Cosette sur iPhone/iPad et Android  ».

Les misérables les. Le scénar est nul et ca se finit en queue de poisson. Les misérables victor hugo. Amazing vocal control and artistry for aaron tveit my goodness. Les misérables tv series. 46:06 Look Down (Paris. Les miserables songs. Les Miserables has plenty of points to make, and while it inevitably fails on some and perhaps even on the main intended theme, the story is told with sufficient honesty to mostly work. The first half of the film is a slice of life movie of the life of a cop in an impoverished French slum, while the second half gets into its bigger political ideals. Ly clearly has vision and strong storytelling skills, as information is communicated with minimal exposition, and the pace is swift. There is some ambiguity in how good or helpful the characters in the movie are, particularly Greaser. We get a sense for what life is like living in the slums, but not a sense of what any of the boys are actually like. The second half dives deeper into its grander ideas, and one main point is made effectively, while many fall short. To me, the main theme of the movie was that absolute power absolutely corrupts, which is why accountability is essential for police officers, who are supposed to uphold the law. This is obviously personified by Chris, but also represented in the gradual use of force in the other two cops. With the quote from Les Mis at the end and the grand finale he has, I think Ly was going for a story of simmering tension between cops and unhappy citizens, until the shot was the last straw and the people rebel. There wasn't enough build for me in terms of the people's dissatisfaction and resentment towards the cops for this to really be effective. The main performance by the actor playing Greaser could've been much better, as he didn't really convey any emotion to me. It's a strange ending, especially with the quote about people not being good or bad but being cultivated, cause that really doesn't come across the rest of the movie. I do like the way the story is told visually and think it's an engaging plot and premise, but just don't think most of the ideas fully cohere. Decent film, but if my suspicions about Portrait are right, France probably made the wrong call on its Oscar nominee.

Enjolras 2:42 My favorite faceXDYou fricking idiots we're trying to liberate France.
1:11:22 Building the Barricade.
Quand t'es petit tu es pour la France à la coupe du monde mais quand tu grandis tu comprends pourquoi les grands ne l'étaient pas.
Best version of Les Mis I have heard.

It's night and Marius sang so loud😂😂. I loved the movie it had a great beginning and end but the middle part when they focused on the revolution was the least interesting and weakest But i m So Glad Finaly i can watch for free LES MISERABLES My Recomended Movie This Week Watch Now Full Streaming Movie ON. Les miserables.



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